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Original Title: Normal Distribution

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Normal Distribution

One

of the most important examples of a continuous random distribution

Sometimes called Gaussian distribution

A normal distribution can be used to describe a variety of variables, such as

heights, weights, and temperatures.

A normal distribution corresponds to bell-shaped curves called the normal

curve.

The density function( mathematical equation) of this distribution is given by

Where

1. A normal distribution curve is bell-shaped

2. The mean is located at the center of the distribution

3. A normal distribution curve is unimodal ( has only one mode)

4. The curve is symmetric about the mean, which is equivalent to saying that its

shape is the same on both sides of vertical line passing through the center.

5. The curve is continuous; that is, there are no gaps or holes. For each value of

X, there is a corresponding value of Y.

6. The curve never touches the x-axis.

7. The total area under a normal distribution curve is equal to 1 or 100%.

8. The area under the part of a normal curve that lies within 1 standard

deviation of the mean is approximately 0.68 or 68%; within 2

standard deviation, about 0.95 or 95%; and within 3 standard

deviations, about 0.997 or 99.7% as shown.

Curve

Example

tree is normally distributed with a mean of =150 cm and

a standard deviation of = 30 cm. Sketch a normal curve

that describes this distribution

Example 2. The heights of the same variety of pine tree

are also normally distributed. The mean height is =33 m

and the standard deviation is = 3 m. Sketch a normal

curve that describes this distribution

A normal distribution with parameter values of mean =

0 (zero) and standard deviation = 1.

A random variable having a standard normal

distribution is called standard normal random

variable

Denoted by Z

The graph of f(z; 0, 1) is called the standard normal

curve or z curve.

All normally distributed variables can be transformed

into the standard normally distributed variable by using

the formula for the standard score.

Curve

The Table of areas under the normal curve is also known

as the z-table.

The area under the normal curve can be used as a

probability.

Four Steps in finding the areas under the normal curve

with given z-value.

1. Express the given z-value into a three digit form

2. Using the z-table, find the two digits on the left

column.

3. Match the third digit with the appropriate column on

areas of each of the following zvalues.

1. Z = 1.99 , 0.4767

2. Z = -1.16 , 0.3770

3. Z = 1.39 , 0.4177

4. Z = 1.68 , 0.4535

5. Z = -1.37 , 0.4147

6. Z = 0.96

7. Z = 1.74

8. Z = 2.18

9. Z = 2.69

10.Z = 3.00

The Z-Score

The

areas under the normal curve are given in terms of z-values

or scores.

The z-score locate X within a sample or within a population

Z-score for population data

Where, X given measurement , population mean,

population standard deviation

Z-score for sample data

Where, X given measurement , sample mean,

sample standard deviation

corresponding z-score

2. X = 2.3 , = 3 and = 5

3. X = 778 , = 800 and = 40

4. X = 70 , and s = 8 , z = 1

5. X = 80 , and s = 2

6. X = 43 , and s = 2 , z = 1.5

1. Less than , below, at most , to the left of any z value : Look

up the z value in the table and take add the area from 0.5.

Take note take the sign of the z-score.

Look up the z value and subtract the area from 0.5. Take

the sign of the z-score.

3. Between any two z values. Look up both z values and

subtract the corresponding areas. Take the sign of the zscore.

1. Find the area to the left of z = 1.99

, 0.9767

, 0.877

0.8682

4. Find the area to the right of z = 0.23

5. Find the area to the left z = - 1.43

distribution curve using Microsoft

Excel

1. Finding the area to the left of any value of z.

In a blank cell type: NORMSDIST(z)

2. Find the area to the right of any value of z

In a blank cell type: 1 NORMSDIST(z)

3. Find the area between any two z values

In a blank cell type: NORMSDIST(upper z)

NORMSDIST(lower z)

Determining Probabilities

The area under the standard distribution curve

corresponds to the probability.

Probability Notation:

1. P(a<z<b)

The probability that the z-score is between a and b

2. P(z>a)

The probability that the z-score is greater than a

3. P(z<a)

The probability that the z-score is less than a

Probabilities

1. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(z<-1.65)

,0.0495

2. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(z>1.78)

, 0.0375

3. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(1.83<z<0.98) ,0.8029

4. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(z<-1.72)

5. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(z>0.54)

6. Given a standard normal distribution, find P(1.32<z<2.37)

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