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Chapter 11 Attitude and Attitude

Change
What are attitudes?
Main components of attitudes
Strategies that can be used to change attitudes
Effect of marketing communication on attitudes
Strategic implications of attitudes

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Attitudes
Attitude components

cognitive
affective
behavioural

Component consistency
Measurement of attitude components

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Definition of Attitude
An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond in

a consistently positive or negative way to a given


object or event.

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Terminology
Favourability: the positive or negative evaluation

of the object or event


Intensity: the strength with which the consumer

can hold an attitude


Confidence: the degree to which the consumer

believes their attitude is right

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Components of an Attitude
Cognitive
Affective
Behavioural

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Attitude Components and Manifestations

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Cognitive Component
Consists of the consumers beliefs and knowledge

about the attributes of a particular brand, product


or outlet

many beliefs relate to the evaluation of attributes

the cognitive component represents the summation of


evaluations

multi-attribute model

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Affective Component
Represents the consumers feelings or emotional

reaction to a product

Based on experience or cognitive information

Response is person-situation specific

Cultural influence

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Behavioural Component
Represents the consumers tendency (intention) to

respond in a particular way towards the object or


event

Behaviour

Intention

Situational influence

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Component Consistency
The three components of an attitude (cognitive,

affective and behavioural) have a tendency to be


consistent.
A change in one component will have a flow-on

effect on the other components.

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Attitude-Component Consistency

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Measurement of Attitude
Components
As components of attitude are an integral part of a
marketing strategy, it is important to be able to
measure each component.

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Measuring Attitude Components


Cognitive Component
(Measuring Beliefs about Specific Attributes Using the Semantic Differential
Scale)

Diet Coke
Strong taste ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ Mild taste

Low priced ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ High priced

Caffeine free____ ____ ____ ____


caffeine
Distinctive in________ ____ ____
taste
taste to
most

____ ____ ____ High in


____ ____ ____ Similar in

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Measuring Attitude Components (cont.)


Affective Component
(Measuring Feelings about Specific Attributes Using Likert Scales)

Strongly
Agree
Agree

Neither
Agree
nor
Strongly
Disagree Disagree Disagree

Disagree
I like the taste of Diet
Coke.

____

____

____

____

____

Diet Coke is overpriced. ____

____
____

____
____

____
____

____
____

____

____

____

____

Caffeine is bad for your ____


health.
I like Diet Coke.

____

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Measuring Attitude Components (cont.)


Behavioral Component

(Measuring Actions or Intended Actions)

Have you ever purchased Diet Coke?


Yes How often?___
No

What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke the next time you
purchase a soft drink?
Definitely will buy

Probably will buy


Might buy
Probably will not buy
Definitely will not buy
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Attitude-Change Strategies
Changing or establishing an attitude requires
manipulation of one or more of the components of the
attitude (i.e. cognitive, affective or behavioural)

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Strategies Based on Attitudes


Market segmentation

benefit segmentation

Product development

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Attitude-Change Strategies
Changing the affective component

classical conditioning
affect towards the advertisement
mere exposure

Changing the behavioural component


Changing the cognitive component

four basic strategies

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Attitude-Change Strategies (cont.)


Affective component

Classical conditioning

Positive affect towards the advertisement

Mere exposure

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Attitude-Change Strategies (cont.)


Change affective component

Involves changing the consumers feel about a product,


without necessarily directly influencing their beliefs or
behaviour

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Attitude Change in Ads

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Attitude Change in Ads (cont.)

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Attitude-Change Strategies
Change behavioural component

Alter the purchase behaviour or consumption behaviour


directly, which may in turn lead to a change in belief or
affect
Change in beliefs or improved knowledge base will have
subsequent influence on affect and behaviour

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Attitude-Change Strategies (cont.)


Change behavioural component

Operant conditioning

Sampling (trialing)

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Strategies Used for Altering the


Cognitive Component
Change in beliefs or improved knowledge base will

have a subsequent influence on affect and


behaviour

Change the beliefs about the attributes of the brand


Change the relative importance of these beliefs
Add new beliefs
Change the beliefs about the attributes of the ideal brand

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Adding a New Belief

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Communication and
Attitude Change
Source characteristics

source credibilitytrustworthiness and expertise


celebrity sources

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Matching Endorser with Product and Target Audience

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Communication and
Attitude Change
Appeal Characteristics

Fear
(unpleasant consequences if attitude and/or behaviour is
not altered)
Humour
Comparative advertisement
(comparing attributes of focus brand to those of
competitor)
Emotional
(message is constructed to elicit a positive
response/feeling rather than provide information)

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Ad Seeking an Emotional Response

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Communication and
Attitude Change
Message-structure characteristics

one-sided versus two-sided messages


non-verbal components

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