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# Chapter 2: Fundamental

Concepts of Conduction

## 2.2 The Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of
the ability of the material to conduct heat.
High value for thermal conductivity
good heat conductor
Low value
poor heat conductor or insulator

## Thermal Conductivities of Materials

The thermal conductivities
of gases such as air vary
by a factor of 104 from
those of pure metals such
as copper.
Pure crystals and metals
have the highest thermal
conductivities, and gases
and insulating materials
the lowest.

## Thermal Conductivities and Temperature

The thermal
conductivities of
materials vary with
temperature.
The temperature
dependence of thermal
conductivity causes
considerable complexity
in conduction analysis.
A material is normally
assumed to be isotropic.

## 2.3 The Heat Diffusion Equation

Cartesian Coordinates

T T T
q k T k
i
j
z
y
z
x

Heat flux
T
T

T
T
k k k q& c p
x x
y y
z
z
t

## Heat diffusion equation

2T 2T 2T q& c p T 1 T
2 2

2
k
k t t
x
y
z

## Fourier - Biot equation

Thermal diffusivity
Heat conducted
k

( m2 s )

## The thermal diffusivity represents how fast heat

diffuses through a material.
Appears in the transient heat conduction analysis.
A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a
low heat capacity will have a large thermal diffusivity.
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the
propagation of heat into the medium.

## Cylindrical and Spherical

Co-ordinate system
Cylindrical
.
1
T
1
T
T
T
(kr ) 2
(k ) (k ) q .CP .
r r
r
r z z
t
Spherical
1
1
T

T .
T
2 T
(k .r
) 2 2
(k ) 2
(k . sin ) q .CP .
2
r r
r r . sin r . sin

## (Q) The temperature distribution across a wall 1 m thick at a

certain instant time is given as T ( x) a bx cx 2
Where a = 900oC, b = -300oC/m, and c = -50oC/m2. A uniform
heat generation rate of 1000 W/m3 is present in the wall of
area 10 m2 having the properties = 1600 kg/m3, k = 40
W/m.K, and cp = 4 KJ/kg.K
1. Determine the rate of heat transfer entering the wall and
leaving the wall.
2. Determine the rate of change of energy storage in the wall.
3. Determine the time rate of temperature change at x = 0,
0.25 m, and 0.5 m.

## 2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions

Heat equation is second order in the
spatial coordinates, two boundary
conditions (physical conditions existing
at the boundaries of the medium) must
be expressed for each co-ordinate need
to describe the system. Because the
equation is first order in time, only one
condition, termed the initial condition (at
initial time) must be specified.

## The first condition corresponds to a situation for

which the surface is mentioned at a fixed temperature
Ts. It is commonly termed as Dirichlet condition, or a
boundary condition of the first kind.
For example, while the surface remains at the
temperature of the phase change process.

## The second condition corresponds to the existence of a fixed or constant heat

flux at the surface. It is commonly termed as Neumann condition, or a
boundary condition of the second kind, and may be realized by bonding a thin
film electric heater to the surface.

## The boundary condition of the third kind corresponds

to the existence of convection heating (or cooling) at
the surface .

## (Q) A long copper bar of rectangular cross-section, whose width w is

much greater than its thickness L, is maintained in contact with a
sink at its lower temperature, and the temperature throughout the bar
is approximately equal to that of the sink, To. Suddenly, an electric
current is passed through the bar and an airstream of temperature T
is passed over the top surface, while the bottom surface continues to
be maintained at To. Obtain the differential equation and boundary
and initial conditions that could be solved to determine the
temperature as a function of position and time in the bar.