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PAPER OF

EFL CURRICULUM
ANALYSIS
PROVIDING FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING
By
Meri Lestari
A2B015038

Four factors to be considered

A.
INSTITUTIONAL
FACTORS

D. LEARNER
FACTORS

B. TEACHER
FACTORS

C. TEACHING
FACTORS

A. The Institution
A.1 The organization culture
A.2 Quality indicators in an institution
A.3The teaching context

A.1. The organizational culture


Refers to
1. The ethos and environment that exist within a school
2. The kinds of communications and decision making
that take place
3. The management and staffing structure they support

Two types of organizational structures


1. Mechanistic model
2. Organic model

1. Mechanistic model
bureaucratic approach to organizing collective
activities that stresses the need for authority,
hierarchies of control, and an explicit chain of
command

2. Organic model (more flexible)


1. Maximizes flexibility and adaptability
2. Encourages complete confidence and trust between
superior and subordinate
3. Taps a wide range of human motivations to achieve
organizational goals

A.2 Quality indicators in an institution


(Some schools take seriously)

1. Development of a sound curriculum and


programs
2. The best available teachers to be hired
3. Quality instruction and the kinds of support
that teachers need to achieve their best

Characteristics of quality indicators


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Clearly stated educational goals


Well-planned, balanced and organized program
Systematic and identifiable processes
Commitment to learning
Staff involvement in developing goals
Motivated and cohesive teaching force
Teachers professional development
Programs to be reviewed and progress

Key dimensions of quality and how quality can


become a focus in a school or language program

1. A sense of mission
2. A strategic plan (vision, value, purpose, mission,
goals, and strategies)
3. Quality assurance mechanisms
4. A sound curriculum
5. Flexible organizational framework
6. Good internal communications
7. Professional treatment of teachers
8. Opportunities for teacher development

A.3 The Teaching Context


Size and staff
structure

Equipment

Support staff

Teacher work space

Teacher resource
room

Teaching facilities

Class size

B. THE
TEACHERS
B.1 Skills and Qualifications
Lortie (1975) indicate that a profession is characterized by:
homogeneous consensual knowledge base
(particular knowledge in some specific field)
restricted entry (degree, certificate)
high social status
self-regulation
legal right to govern daily work affairs

Core components of teachers of teacher knowledge


include the following:
practical knowledge
content knowledge
contextual knowledge
pedagogical knowledge
personal knowledge
reflective knowledge

The UCLES Certificate in Language


Teaching to Adults focus on six area
of basic teaching skills

language awareness
learners, teachers, and the teaching/learning
context
planning for effective teaching of adult
English
learners
classroom management and teaching skill
resources and materials for teaching
professional development

Opportunities to develop these


skills can be provided in the
following ways

Observation of experienced teachers


Observation of training videos
Short theory courses
Practice teaching under the supervision of experienced
teachers
Working with a mentor teacher

The Function of Institution for Teachers


Teaching skills/ understanding of teaching

Self-reflection and Evaluation


Strength and Weakness
Specialized Knowledge and Skills
Curiosity and Interest
Relevant Professional Knowledge Base
Involvement in Professional Organizations

B.2 Support for


teachers
1. The Orientation
2. Adequate Materials
3. Course Guides
4. Division of Responsibilities
5. Further Training
6. Teaching Release
7. Mentors
8. Feedback
9. Rewards
10. Help Lines
11. Review

C. The Teaching Process


c.1 Teaching Model and Principles
c.2 Maintaining Good Teaching
c.3 Evaluating Teaching

Teaching Model and Principles


Comparison of Teaching Models
Operative model:
* the requirements of a centralized system
* teachers deliver a textbook as planned
Problem-solving model:
* adaption to learners needs
* teachers diagnose problems, design activity

c.1 Teaching Models on


Methods or Approaches

The Communicative
Approach

The Cooperative Learning


Model

The Process Approach


The Whole-language
Approach

Teaching Models on
Principles

1. A Consistent Focus

2. Practical Tasks

3. Realistic Use

4. Communicative Use

5. Cooperative Activities

6. Accuracy and Fluency

7. The Role of Facilitator

8. Communicative and Skill

8. Learning Awareness

9.Self-monitoring and setting goals

c.2 Maintaining good teaching

The following are strategies that


address this issue.
Monitoring
Observation
Identification and resolution of problems
Shared planning
Documentation and sharing of good practices
Self-study of the program

To reward teachers for good performance


To help identify needs for further training
To reinforce the need for continous staff
development
To help improve teaching
To provide a basis contract renewal and promotion
To demonstrate an interest in teachers
performance and development

An appraisal system may have


several different purpose

The purpose of the appraisal will determine the


type of appraisal that is carried out

Developing the appraisal


system
Conducting the appraisal

The focus of appraisal

D. The learning process

View of Learning

Understanding of the Course

Motivation

Learning styles

Support