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ELECTRIC CAR

1st Electric car

English inventor Thomas Parker, who was responsible for


innovations such as electrifying the London Underground,
overhead tramways in Liverpool and Birmingham and he
built the first production electric car in London in 1884

1st American electric car

The first American electric car was developed in 1890-91 by William


Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa; the vehicle was a six-passenger wagon
capable of reaching a speed of 14 miles per hour (23km/h)

TESLA MODEL X

Falcon Wings.
Panoramic glass
Seating for Seven
303 miles of range
0-60 miles per hour in as quick as 3.2
seconds.

BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC
CARS

Batteries is the most important element of an electric


car.
DEPENDENT FEATURES BATTERY
Autonomy (energy that are able to be stored in the
battery)
Recharge time
Acceleration
Price
Environmental impact

WHAT ARE THE BATTERY


A battery is a device capable of storing electrical
energy as chemical energy. This chemical energy is
contained in the electrodes, which transform directly
and spontaneously into electrical energy by
electrochemical oxidation-reduction reactions.
OUTLINE OF A CELL ELECTROCHEMICAL

An electrochemical cell consists mainly of two


electrodes. positive and negative
The electrode positive have more oxidation potential
than the negative electrode . Separating these
electrodes have an electrolyte that is generally a
liquid and which is characterized by leading the
charge as ions.

The batteries are seriously or combination of two or


more parallel of these cells

The most important electrochemical characteristics of


the batteries are
Operating voltage
Potential
Capacity (amount of electricity that can be stored)
Specific energy (amount of energy that can be stored)
Number of cycles (number of times you rechange the
battery).
Battery technologies that are currently being used in
electric vehicles.

BATTERY TYPES OLDEST TO NEWS


1st Lead Acid Battery
Example: Reva 1.

3rd lithiumion batteries,


MOST
ADVANCED
TECHNOLOGY
Example:
Tesla

2nd Nickel-metal Hydride


Battery Example: Toyota Prius

Braking Systems
Braking systems are a very important part in
electric cars
There are two system to brake in the electric cars

Friction
Brakes
Regenerative Brakes: This type of brake are
not fully responsible in some situations.

Friction Brakes
Disc
The most extended brake
Brake
nowadays

[http://www.pakwheels.com/forums/mechanicalelectrical/11064-brakes]

Drum Brake
Actually some cars carry these
brakes on the rear wheels

[https://www.lesschwab.com/images/content/drumbrake-modal.png]

Regenerative Brakes
Battery charge
method
The most extended

Flywheel
method
Unusual
method

method nowadays

[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/motors
port/2753049/Formula-1-goes-green.html]

[http://productsboschmobilitysolutions.com/media/ubk_europe/
db_application/ev_2015/SMG_Gen2_Standalone_w486.jpg]

Advantages and disadvantages of


regenerative brakes
Advantages.
Dissipated Kinetic energy is reused to charge batteries.

High performance independent of temperature

Disadvantages.
Dissipated Kinetic energy is reused to charge batteries.

A regenerative brake does not immobilise a stationary vehicle.


physical lockingis required
For safety, the ability to brake all wheels is required, and
therefore drive motors in all wheels are required.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


OF ELECTRIC CARS
Advantages
1. No Emissions.
2. No Gas
Required.
3. Cost Effective.
4. Reduced Noise
Pollution.

Disadvantages
1. Recharge Point.
2. Electricity isnt
Free.
3. Short Driving
Range
and Speed.

Advantages
No Emissions.
- 100% Ecofriendly.
- No smoke and toxic gases
emited.
- Better tan hybrid cars.
No Gas Required.
- No need to buy any gas.
- Price (America 2000-4000$
year).
Cost Effective.
- Grants.
- Free maintenance.

Reduced Noise Pollution.


- Much quieter
- Smooth drive
- Higher accelaration over
longer distances.

Disadvantages
Recharge Point.
- Fuelling stations are still in
development.
- Few places to charge in a daily
basis.
Electricity isnt Free.
- Energy bill.
- Careful research.
Short Driving Range and Speed.
- Limited range (50-100 miles) and
speed.
- No long journeys.