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# Molarity (M)

mol of solute
M=
L of solution
You will recall this concentration
measure from Chapter 4.
Because volume is temperature
dependent, molarity can change
with temperature.

Changing Molarity to
Molality
If we know the
density of the
solution, we can
calculate the
molality from the
molarity, and vice
versa.

Mass Percentage
The concentration of a solution can be
expressed
either
qualitatively
or
quantitatively. The terms dilute and
concentrated are used to describe a
solution qualitatively.
One
of
the
simplest
quantitative
expressions of concentration is the mass
percentage of a component in a solution,
given by

## PPM and PPB

We often express the concentration of very dilute
solutions in parts per million (ppm)or parts per
billion (ppb). These quantities are similar to mass
percentage but use 106 (a million) or 109 (a
billion), respectively, in place of 100, as a
multiplier for the ratio of the mass of solute to the
mass of solution. Thus, parts per million is
defined as
The acceptable maximum concentrations of toxic or
carcinogenic substances in the environment are often
expressed in ppm or ppb. For example, the maximum
allowable concentration of arsenic in drinking water in
the United States is 0.010 ppm; that is, 0.010 mg of
arsenic per liter of water. This concentration
corresponds to 10 ppb

## Parts per Million and

Parts per Billion

## Parts per Million (ppm)

mass of A in solution
106
ppm
total mass of solution
=

## Parts per Billion (ppb)

mass of A in solution
109
ppb
total mass of solution
=

## MEASUREMENT IN PETROLIUM INDUSTRY

Dilution
Solutions used routinely in the laboratory are often purchased or prepared
in concentrated form (called stock solutions). Solutions of lower
concentrations can then be obtained by adding water, a process called
dilution.
The
main point to remember is that when solvent is added to a solution, the
number of moles of solute remains unchanged:

Titrations
To determine the concentration of a particular solute in a solution, chemists
often carry out a titration, which involves combining a solution where the
solute concentration is not known with a reagent solution of known
concentration, called a standard solution. Just enough standard solution
is added to completely react with the solute in the solution of unknown
concentration. The point at which stoichiometrically equivalent quantities
are brought together is known as the equivalence point.

Titrations Calculation

Colligative Properties
Changes in colligative properties
depend only on the number of
solute particles present, not on the
identity of the solute particles.
Among colligative properties are
Vapor pressure lowering
Boiling point elevation
Melting point depression
Osmotic pressure

Vapor Pressure
The vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by the vapor when it is
at equilibrium with the liquid (that is, when the rate of
vaporization equals the rate of condensation).
A substance that has no measurable vapor pressure is nonvolatile,
whereas one that exhibits a vapor pressure is volatile.

Raoults Law
PA = XAPA
where
XA is the mole fraction of compound A
PA is the normal vapor pressure of A
at that temperature
NOTE: This is one of those times when
you want to make sure you have the
vapor pressure of the solvent.

Distillation
Distillation is the separation of a
mixture of components based on
differences in volatility (vapor
pressure) by repeated evaporation
and condensation of the mixture.
The vapor always contains a larger
mole fraction of the more volatile
component.

Distillation Apparatus

Law

Raoults law

## When an ideal liquid solution containing two volatile

components is in equilibrium with its vapor, the more
volatile component will be relatively richer in the vapor.
This fact forms the basis of distillation, a technique used to
separate (or partially separate) mixtures containing volatile
components
Distillation is a way of purifying liquids, and is the
procedure by which petrochemical plants achieve the
separation of crude petroleum into gasoline, diesel fuel,
lubricating oil, and other products

Law

## Most liquid-liquid solutions deviate

from the ideal behavior predicted
by Raoults law.
Solutions have positive deviations if
the vapor pressure is higher than
predicted.
Solutions have negative deviations
if the vapor pressure is lower than
predicted.

## Boiling Point Elevation and

Freezing Point Depression
Nonvolatile solutesolvent
interactions also
cause solutions to
have higher boiling
points and lower
freezing points
than the pure
solvent.

## Boiling Point Elevation

The change in boiling
point is proportional
to the molality of the
solution:
Tb = Kb m

## Tb is added to the normal boiling

point of the solvent.

## where Kb is the molal

boiling point elevation
constant, a property
of the solvent.

## Freezing Point Depression

The change in
freezing point can be
found similarly:
Tf = Kf m

## Tf is subtracted from the normal

freezing point of the solvent.

## Here Kf is the molal

freezing point
depression constant
of the solvent.

## Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing

Point Depression
Note that in both
equations, T does
not depend on
what the solute is,
but only on how
many particles are
dissolved.

Tb = Kb m
Tf = Kf m

## One mole of NaCl

in water does not
really give rise to
two moles of ions.

## vant Hoff Factor

Some Na+ and Cl
reassociate for a
short time, so the
true
concentration of
particles is
somewhat less
than two times
the concentration
of NaCl.

## The vant Hoff Factor

Reassociation is
more likely at
higher
concentration.
Therefore, the
number of
particles present
is concentration
dependent.

## The vant Hoff Factor

We modify the previous equations by
multiplying by the vant Hoff factor, i

Tf = Kf m i

Tb = Kb
m
Tf = Kf m

Osmosis
Some substances form
semipermeable membranes,
allowing some smaller particles to
pass through, but blocking other
larger particles.
In biological systems, most
semipermeable membranes allow
water to pass through, but solutes
are not free to do so.

Osmosis

## In osmosis, there is net movement of

solvent from the area of higher solvent
concentration (lower solute concentration)
to the are of lower solvent concentration
(higher solute concentration).

Osmotic Pressure
The pressure required to stop
osmosis, known as osmotic
pressure, , is

=(

n
V

)RT = MRT

## where M is the molarity of the solution

If the osmotic pressure is the same on both sides of a
membrane (i.e., the concentrations are the same), the
solutions are isotonic.

## Molar Mass from

Colligative Properties
We can use the
effects of a
colligative property
such as osmotic
pressure to
determine the
molar mass of a
compound.

Colloids:
Suspensions of particles larger than
individual ions or molecules, but too
small to be settled out by gravity.

Tyndall Effect
Colloidal suspensions
can scatter rays of
light.
This phenomenon is
known as the Tyndall
effect.