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Third Edition

CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Lecture Notes:
Berli Kamiel
UMY

Shearing Stresses in
Beams and ThinWalled Members

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Shearing Stresses in Beams and


Thin-Walled Members
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Example 6.01
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
Shearing Stresses xy in Common Types of Beams
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Example 6.04
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members
Example 6.05
Example 6.06
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Introduction
Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.
Distribution of normal and shearing
stresses satisfies
Fx x dA 0
Fy xy dA V
Fz xz dA 0

M x y xz z xy dA 0
M y z x dA 0
M z y x 0

When shearing stresses are exerted on the


vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces
Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist
in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
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Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Consider prismatic beam
For equilibrium of beam element
Fx 0 H D D dA
A

M D MC
y dA
I
A

Note,
Q y dA
A

M D MC

dM
x V x
dx

Substituting,
VQ
x
I
H VQ
q

shear flow
x
I
H

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Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Shear flow,
q

H VQ

shear flow
x
I

where
Q y dA
A

first moment of area above y1


I

2
y dA

A A'

second moment of full cross section

Same result found for lower area


H VQ

q
x
I
Q Q 0
q

first moment with respect


to neutral axis
H H
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Example 6.01
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
Calculate the corresponding shear
force in each nail.
A beam is made of three planks,
nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.

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Example 6.01
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.

Q Ay
0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m
120 106 m3
I

1 0.020 m 0.100 m 3
12
1 0.100 m 0.020 m 3
2[12

0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m 2 ]


16.20 10

VQ (500 N)(120 106 m3 )


q

I
16.20 10-6 m 4
3704 N
m

Calculate the corresponding shear


force in each nail for a nail spacing
of 25 mm.
F (0.025 m)q (0.025 m)(3704 N m
F 92.6 N

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Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam


The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
H q x VQ x

A
A
I t x
VQ

It

ave

On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,


yx= 0. It follows that xy= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.
If the width of the beam is comparable or large
relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1
and D2 are significantly higher than at D.
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Shearing Stresses xy in Common Types of Beams


For a narrow rectangular beam,
VQ 3 V
y 2
xy

1 2

Ib 2 A
c
3V
max
2A

For American Standard (S-beam)


and wide-flange (W-beam) beams
VQ
It
V
max
Aweb

ave

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Further Discussion of the Distribution of


Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam
Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam
subjected to load P at its free end:
3 P
y 2
xy
1 2

2 A
c

Pxy
I

Shearing stresses are independent of the distance


from the point of application of the load.
Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected
by the shearing stresses.
From Saint-Venants principle, effects of the load
application mode are negligible except in immediate
vicinity of load application points.
Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are
negligible for typical beam sections of interest.
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Sample Problem 6.2


SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
Determine the beam depth based on
allowable normal stress.
A timber beam is to support the three
concentrated loads shown. Knowing
that for the grade of timber used,
all 1800 psi

all 120 psi

determine the minimum required depth


d of the beam.

Determine the beam depth based on


allowable shear stress.
Required beam depth is equal to the
larger of the two depths found.

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Sample Problem 6.2


SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
Vmax 3 kips
M max 7.5 kip ft 90 kip in

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Sample Problem 6.2


Determine the beam depth based on allowable
normal stress.
all

M max
S

1800 psi

90 103 lb in.

0.5833 in. d 2

d 9.26 in.
1 bd3
I 12
I
S 16 b d 2
c

16 3.5 in. d 2
0.5833 in. d 2

Determine the beam depth based on allowable


shear stress.
3 Vmax
2 A
3 3000 lb
120 psi
2 3.5 in. d
d 10.71in.

all

Required beam depth is equal to the larger of the two.


d 10.71in.
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Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element


of Arbitrary Shape
We have examined the distribution of
the vertical components xy on a
transverse section of a beam. We
now wish to consider the horizontal
components xz of the stresses.
Consider prismatic beam with an
element defined by the curved surface
CDDC.
Fx 0 H D C dA
a

Except for the differences in


integration areas, this is the same
result obtained before which led to
H

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VQ
x
I

H VQ

x
I
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Example 6.04
SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.
Based on the spacing between nails,
determine the shear force in each
nail.
A square box beam is constructed from
four planks as shown. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 1.5 in. and the
beam is subjected to a vertical shear of
magnitude V = 600 lb, determine the
shearing force in each nail.
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Example 6.04
SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.

VQ 600 lb 4.22 in 3
lb
q

92
.
3
I
in
27.42 in 4
q
lb
46.15
2
in
edge force per unit length

For the upper plank,


Q Ay 0.75in. 3 in.1.875 in.
4.22 in 3

For the overall beam cross-section,


1 4.5 in 1 3 in
I 12
12
3

Based on the spacing between nails,


determine the shear force in each
nail.

27.42 in 4
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lb

F f 46.15 1.75 in
in

F 80.8 lb
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Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


Consider a segment of a wide-flange
beam subjected to the vertical shear V.
The longitudinal shear force on the
element is
H

VQ
x
I

The corresponding shear stress is


zx xz

H VQ

t x It

Previously found a similar expression


for the shearing stress in the web
xy

VQ
It

NOTE: xy 0
xz 0
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in the flanges
in the web
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Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


The variation of shear flow across the
section depends only on the variation of
the first moment.
q t

VQ
I

For a box beam, q grows smoothly from


zero at A to a maximum at C and C and
then decreases back to zero at E.
The sense of q in the horizontal
portions of the section may be deduced
from the sense in the vertical portions
or the sense of the shear V.

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Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


For a wide-flange beam, the shear flow
increases symmetrically from zero at A
and A, reaches a maximum at C and the
decreases to zero at E and E.
The continuity of the variation in q and
the merging of q from section branches
suggests an analogy to fluid flow.

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Plastic Deformations
I
c

Recall: M Y Y maximum elastic moment


For M = PL < MY , the normal stress does
not exceed the yield stress anywhere along
the beam.
For PL > MY , yield is initiated at B and B.
For an elastoplastic material, the half-thickness
of the elastic core is found from
2

3
1
y
Y
Px M Y 1 2

2
3 c

The section becomes fully plastic (yY = 0) at


the wall when
3
PL M Y M p
2

Maximum load which the beam can support is


Pmax

Mp
L

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Plastic Deformations
Preceding discussion was based on
normal stresses only
Consider horizontal shear force on an
element within the plastic zone,
H C D dA Y Y dA 0

Therefore, the shear stress is zero in the


plastic zone.
Shear load is carried by the elastic
core, 3 P
y2
xy

2 A
yY

max

where A 2byY

3P
2 A

As A decreases, max increases and


may exceed Y
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Sample Problem 6.3


SOLUTION:
For the shaded area,
Q 4.31in 0.770 in 4.815 in
15.98 in 3

The shear stress at a,


Knowing that the vertical shear is 50
kips in a W10x68 rolled-steel beam,
determine the horizontal shearing
stress in the top flange at the point a.

VQ 50 kips 15.98 in 3

It
394 in 4 0.770 in

2.63 ksi

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Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members


Beam loaded in a vertical plane
of symmetry deforms in the
symmetry plane without
twisting.
x

My
I

ave

VQ
It

Beam without a vertical plane


of symmetry bends and twists
under loading.
x

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My
I

ave

VQ
It

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Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members


If the shear load is applied such that the beam
does not twist, then the shear stress distribution
satisfies
D
B
E
VQ
ave
V q ds F q ds q ds F
It
B
A
D

F and F indicate a couple Fh and the need for


the application of a torque as well as the shear
load.
F h Ve

When the force P is applied at a distance e to the


left of the web centerline, the member bends in
a vertical plane without twisting.

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Example 6.05
Determine the location for the shear center of the
channel section with b = 4 in., h = 6 in., and t = 0.15 in.
e

Fh
I

where
b

b VQ

Vb h
F q ds
ds st ds
I0 2
0
0 I
Vthb 2

4I

1 3
1 3
h
I I web 2 I flange th 2 bt bt
12
2
12
2

1 th 2 6b h
12

Combining,
e

h
2
3b

4 in.
6 in.
2
3 4 in.

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e 1.6 in.

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Example 6.06
Determine the shear stress distribution for
V = 2.5 kips.

q VQ

t
It

Shearing stresses in the flanges,


VQ V
h Vh
st
s
It
It
2 2I
Vhb
6Vb
B

2 1 th 2 6b h th 6b h

12

6 2.5 kips 4 in
2.22 ksi
0.15 in 6 in 6 4 in 6 in

Shearing stress in the web,

1
VQ V 8 ht 4b h 3V 4b h
max

2
1
It
th 6b h t 2th 6b h
12

3 2.5 kips 4 4 in 6 in
3.06 ksi
2 0.15 in 6 in 6 6 in 6 in

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