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Data Modeling and Database

Design
Chapter 1:
Database Systems: Architecture
and Components

Terminology

Data
Information
Metadata

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

Information vs Data:
Compare
EID
E1
E2
E3
E4

Salary
10k
12k
10k
15k

and
EID

Salary

E1
E2
E3
E4

10k
12k
10k
15k

Data Management

1.
2.
3.
4.

Creation of data
Retrieval of data
Update or modification of data
Deletion of data
For that, data must be accessed and, for the ease of
access, data must be organized.
Quickly, Reliably and Securely.

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

Exercise
Assume you want to organize your DVD collection.
The only tool available is an Excel sheet. What would
your columns and rows in Excel look like?

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

Exercise (continued)
Maybe like this?

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

Data Management

Only two approaches for accessing data exist:


Sequential access
Direct access
Important:
A DBMS facilitates access of data without burdening
the user with details of how the data is physically
organized.
It does this by using a declarative query language.

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

History of Data Management

Object-oriented DBMS
Relational DBMS
Network DBMS
Hierarchical DBMS
File systems

1950

1960

1970

1980

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

1990

2000

Limitations of File-Processing Systems

Lack of Data Integrity


Data integrity (data values are correct, consistent,
complete, and current) is often violated in isolated
environments.

Lack of Standards
Organizations find it hard to enforce standards for
naming data items as well as for accessing, updating,
and protecting data.

Lack of Flexibility/Maintainability
File-processing systems are not amenable to structural
changes in data and are therefore dependent upon a
programmer who can either write or modify program
code.

Chapter 1 Database Systems: Architecture and Components

Limitations of File-Processing Systems (continued)

The limitations to file-processing systems are due to:


Lack of Data Integration
Data are separated and isolated in a file-processing
environment.

Lack of Program-Data Independence


The structure of each file is embedded in the application
programs.

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Limitations of File-Processing Systems (continued)

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So, What Is Desirable?

Integrated data
Not data in isolation to be integrated by the application
program/programmer

Data Independence
Application program(s) immune to changes in storage
structure and access strategy
Independent user views of data

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History of Data Management

In the 1970s, the Standards Planning and


Requirements Committee (SPARC) of the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) proposed what
came to be known as the ANSI/SPARC three-schema
architecture: conceptual, internal and external schema.

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Three Perspectives of Metadata in a Database

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Conceptual Schema
Core of the architecture
Represents the global view of the structure of the
entire database for a community of users
Captures data specification (metadata)
Describes all data items and relationships between
data together with integrity constraints
Separates data from the program (or views from the
physical storage structure)
Technology independent
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Why is the Conceptual Model so Important to You?

The world wants T-shaped People:


http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/20/education/20INNOV.html?hpw

Internal Schema

Describes the physical structure of the stored data


(e.g., how the data is actually laid out on storage
devices)
Describes the mechanism used to implement access
strategies (e.g., indexes, hashed addresses, etc.)
Technology dependent
Concerned with the efficiency of data storage and
access mechanisms

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External Schema

Represents different user views, each describing


portions of the database
Technology independent
Views are generated exclusively by logical references

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Physical and Logical Data Independence


Physical Data Independence
Definition: External views unaffected by changes to the
internal structure
How?: Introduction of conceptual schema between the
external views and the internal (physical) schema

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Physical and Logical Data Independence


(continued)
Logical Data Independence
Definition: External views unaffected by design
changes (growth or restructuring) in conceptual
schema
How?: External views generated exclusively
through logical reference to elements in the
conceptual schema
Consequence: External views unaffected by
changes to other external views
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What is a Database System?


A self-describing collection of integrated records
Self-describing
The structure of the database (metadata) is recorded
within the database system not in the application
programs.
Integrated
The responsibility for 'integrating' data items as
needed is assumed by the DBMS instead of the
programmer.
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Characteristics of a Database System

Database
A single, integrated set of files
Database Management System (DBMS)
A collection of general-purpose software that facilitates
the process of defining, constructing, and manipulating
a database for various applications
DDL vs DML
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An Early View of a Database System

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What is a Database?
A database is a self-describing collection of interrelated files.
Data consists of recorded facts that have implicit meaning.
Viewed through the lens of metadata, the meaning of
recorded data becomes explicit.
A database is self-describing in that the metadata is
recorded within the database not in applications
programs.

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What is a Database Management System (DBMS)?

A DBMS is a collection of general-purpose software that


facilitates the processes of defining, constructing, and
manipulating a database.

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Components of a DBMS
The major components of a DBMS include one or more
query languages; tools for generating reports; facilities
for providing security, integrity, backup and recovery; a
data manipulation language for accessing the database;
and a data definition language used to define the
structure of data.

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Components of a Database System

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An Example of a Database System

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Types of Database Systems


Number of users
Single-user
Desktop database system

Multi-user
Workgroup database system
Enterprise database system

Scope
Desktop database system
Workgroup database system
Enterprise database system
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Some Commercial DBMS

IBM & DB2:


www-306.ibm.com/software/data/db2/
Oracle:
www.oracle.com/database/index.html
Microsoft & SQL Server:
www.microsoft.com/sql/default.mspx

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Important Terms

Data Integrity
(correct, consistent, complete and current)
Data Redundancy

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Data Models

A model is an expression of observed or


unobservable reality.
Example: chair versus department
A database represents some aspect of the real world
that is called the Universe of Interest.
The initial step in the design process is the
requirements specification activity (i.e., business
rules).

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Steps in Database Design


Conceptual design ---> Conceptual schema capturing
user-specified business rules
Tool: e.g., ER modeling, NIAM modeling
Presentation Layer ER Model
ER diagram and semantic integrity constraints
Design-Specific ER Model
Coarse and fine level of granularity

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Steps in Database Design (continued)


Logical Design ---> Logical schema
Tool: normalization
Architecture: hierarchical, network, or relational
Physical Design
Specifying internal storage structure and access
strategies

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Steps in Database Design (continued)

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