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Chapter 10

Amplifier Frequency Response

Szu-Chi Tien
Mechanical Engineering, NCKU

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Introduction
In early chapters, we analysed AC-equivalent-circuit of amplifiers
with an assumption that the impedance of a capacitor, ZC, is zero
for all frequency, i.e.,

ZC 0
Moreover, we derived the voltage amplification AV as a constant
for the whole frequency, i.e.,
+V
AV ( ) const.
CC

( [0, ))

R1

1
jC

and no amplifier has infinite bandwidth.

C3

C1

However this is not really true since


ZC

RC

RL
Vin

R2

RE

C2

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Introduction (cont.)
Therefore, we analyse effects from (1) coupling and bypass
capacitors (which affect the amp. like a high-pass filter ) and (2)
internal capacitances of the transistors (which affect the amp. like
a low-pass filter).
Different Frequency Response:

In early chapters

In this chapter

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Effect of Coupling Capacitors

Coupling capacitors are in series with the signal and are


part of a high-pass filter network. They affect the lowfrequency response of the amplifier.
The equivalent circuit for C1 is a

+VCC

high-pass filter:
C1

R1

RC

C3

C1

Vin

RL

Rin
Vin

R2

RE

C2

C3 and (RC + RL) form another highpass filter.


Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Effect of Bypass Capacitors

A bypass capacitor causes reduced gain at low-frequencies


and has a high-pass filter response.
Remember:
Av

+VCC

Rc
re' ( RE || Z C 2 )

R1

RC

C3

C1

at low freq.
ZC2 is not zeorAv decreases

RL
Vin

R2

RE

C2

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Internal Capacitances

The high-frequency response of an amplifier is determined


by internal junction capacitances. These capacitances form
low-pass filters with the external resistors.
Internal capacitors such as Cbc
and Cbe (Cgd and Cgs) are
considered typically.
Consider Cds only when its value
is available in data sheets.

Cbc

Cgd

Cbe

Cgs

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Millers Theorem
Millers theorem is used to simplify the analysis of inverting
amplifiers at high frequencies; the capacitance between the
input and output is equivalent to separate input and output
capacitances to ground.
C
Av

In

Av

Av is the absolute value of the


gain. It can be imagined that
the real gain will be affected
by the equivalent capacitance.

Out

C(Av + 1)

(A A+ 1 )
v

e.g.

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Millers Theorem (cont.)


Consider the output:

Consider the input:


I1

V1 V2 V1 (1 V2 / V1 )

XC
XC

I2

V1 (1 Av )
V1

XC
X C / (1 Av )

X Cin ( miller ) X C / (1 Av )

or

1
1

2 fX Cin ( miller ) 2 fX C / (1 Av )

1
2 f

2 fC (1 Av )

Cout ( miller )

C (1 Av )

V1

I1

I2

AV

V2 (1 1/ Av )
V2

XC
X C / (1 1/ Av )

X Cout ( miller ) X C / (1 1/ Av )

or
Cin ( miller )

V2 V1 V2 (1 V1 / V2 )

XC
XC

V2

V1

1
1

2 fX Cout ( miller ) 2 fX C / (1 1/ Av )
1

1
2 f

2 fC (1 1 / Av )

C(miller)

C(

Av 1
)
Av

V2

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

The Decibel
The decibel is a logarithmic ratio of two power levels and is
used in electronics work in gain or attenuation measurements.
Decibels can be expressed as a voltage ratio when the
voltages are measured in the same impedance.
To express power gain in decibels, the formula is
Ap(dB) = 10 log Ap
To express voltage gain in decibels, the formula is
Av(dB) = 20 log Av
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

The Decibel
Sometimes, 0 dB is assigned as a convenient reference level
for comparison. Then, other power or voltage levels are
shown with respect to 0 dB.
The 3 dB power gain

Some useful decibel ratios to remember are:


Ratio

Power gain, Ap

Voltage gain, Av

0.1

10 dB

20 dB

0.5

3 dB

6 dB

0 dB

0 dB

3 dB

6 dB

10

10 dB

20 dB

corresponds to a power reduction


of one-half. The frequency at
which this occurs is referred to as
the critical frequency (cutoff freq.,
corner freq.).

In general, we set midrange


gain , Av(mid) as the 0 dB for
amplifiers, which is the gain Av
we derived
in early
chapters.
Slides Adapted
mainly from Electronic
Devices:
Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and

partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response
In capacitively coupled amplifiers, the coupling and bypass
capacitors affect the low frequency cutoff. These capacitors
form a high-pass filter with circuit resistances. A typical
+V
BJT amplifier has three high-pass filters.
CC

(1) the input coupling capacitor forms


a high-pass filter with the input
resistance of the amplifier:
C1
Vin

RC C3

R1

Vout

C1
Vin
RL

Transistor base
R2

Vbase

RE

C2

Rin = R1 || R2 || Rin(base)

X C1

The lower cutoff freq., fcl(input) ,


happens when:

i.e.,

1
2 f cl ( input )C1

f cl ( input )

Rin

Vbase

Rin

2 Rin C1

Vin
Rin2 X C21

when X c1 Rin Vbase

1
Vin
2

Vbase
3dB
Vin

i.e., 20 log

(Definition for cutoff Freq.)

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response (cont.)


(2) The output RC circuit is composed of the series
combination of the collector and load resistors with the
output capacitor. The cutoff frequency due to the output
circuit is
1
The lower cutoff freq., fcl(output) ,
happens when:

X C3

i.e.,

2 f cl ( output )C3

f cl ( output )

RC RL

1
2 ( RC RL )C3

Thevenin

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response (cont.)


(3) The bypass RC circuit

The analysis is as
follows:
Step
1:

C1

Rth Rs || R1 || R2

R%
in ( emitter )

Why there
is no C1?

C1

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response (cont.)


(3) The bypass RC circuit
Step 2:

+VCC

Open: Vopen Vth (1) L Thevenin ' s voltage


short:

( a) I short I c L Norton ' s current


(b) Vth (1) I b Rth I c re' 0

Rin ( emitter ) Thevenin ' s resis tan ce

Vth (1)
Ic

Rth
re'
ac

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response (cont.)


(3) The bypass RC circuit
Step 3:

The lower cutoff freq., fcl(bypass) ,


happens when:

XC2
i.e.,

1
2 f cl (bypass )C2

f cl (bypass )

Note: when there is swamping resistor RE1:


Rin ( emitter )

Rth
R || R || R
re' RE1 1 2 s re' RE1
ac
ac

Rin ( emitter ) || RE
1

2 ( Rin ( emitter ) || RE )C2


1

2 ((

Rth
re' ) || RE )C2
ac

1
R || R2 || Rs
2 (( 1
re' ) || RE )C2
ac

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response
(for FET amp.)
The lower cutoff freq.,
fcl(input) , happens when:

X C1

XC2
i.e.,

2 f cl ( input )C1

f cl ( input )

i.e.,

The lower cutoff freq.,


fcl(output) , happens when:

1
2 ( RG || Rin ( gate ) )C1

1
2 f cl ( output ) C2

f cl ( output )

RG || Rin ( gate )

Largecan
be ignored

RD RL

1
2 ( RD RL )C2

gmVgs

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Low-Frequency Response (overall)

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

What is the lower cutoff frequency due to C1?


Assume re = 3.5 and = 200.
+V
CC

+12 V

RE1 is not bypassed, so it is added to


re. Then:
Rin R1 R2 ( RE1 r )
'
e

10 k 4.7 k 200(100 + 3.5 )

= 2.77 k
fc

222.77
Rin C k

1
1.0 F

57 Hz

C1

R1
10 k

Vin

RC
C3
1.0 k

Vout

10 F
2N3904

1.0 F
R2
4.7 k

RE1
100
RE2
330

C2
47 F

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

What is the critical frequency due to the bypass RC circuit?


(Assume Rs = 600 and = 200
and re = 2.6 ).

+VCC
+12 V

See swamping
case in slide 19

R1 R2 Rs

re' RE1

Requiv RE2

330 2.5 + 2.6 + 100

= 79.7
fc

1
2 R e quiv C2

1
42.5 Hz
2 79.7 47 F

C1

R1
10 k

Vin

RC
C3
1.0 k

Vout

10 F
2N3904

1.0 F
R2
4.7 k

RE1
100
RE2
330

C2
47 F

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

The input RC circuit for a FET is a basic high-pass filter


consisting of the bias resistor (or resistors) and the input
coupling capacitor. The FET gate circuit has such high
resistance, it can be ignored.
V
DD

+12 V

See Rin(gate) in slide 20

RD
3.3 k

What is the critical frequency


due to the input RC circuit?

Vout

C1
0.1 F

1
1
fc

1.6 Hz
2 RG C 2 1.0 M 0.1 F

Vin
100 mV

RG

1.0 M

RS
680

C2
10 F

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for BJT amp.)


The high frequency response of inverting amplifiers is primarily determined by the transistors internal capacitance and the Miller
effect.

High-freq. equivalent circuit


Cin ( Miller ) Cbc ( Av 1)
Av 1
Cbc
Av

Cout ( Miller ) Cbc

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for BJT amp.) (cont.)


There are two low-pass filter
(1) input RC circuit

The upper cutoff freq.,


fcu(input) , happens when:
X Ctot
i.e.,

1
2 f cu ( input )Ctot

f cu ( input )

Rs || R1 || R2 || ac re'

1
2 ( Rs || R1 || R2 || ac re' )Ctot

=Ctot

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Pay attention

If there is an unbypassed emitter resistor (RE1 in this case),


the Thevenin resistance is modified to

Rth = Rs || R1 || R2 || ac( r e + RE1)


Base
Vth

Cbe + Cin(Miller )

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for BJT amp.) (cont.)


There are two low-pass filter
(2) output RC circuit
The upper cutoff freq.,
fcu(output) , happens when:
X Cout ( Miller )
i.e.,

1
2 f cu ( output ) Ctot

f cu ( output )

Rc

1
2 Rc Cout ( Miller )

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for FET amp.)

Cgd Crss

(available in the datasheet)

Cgs Ciss Crss (available in the datasheet)


Cds Coss Crss (neglect it if N/A in the
datasheet)
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for FET amp.)


There are two low-pass filter
(1) input RC circuit

Av 1

A
v

Cin ( Miller ) Cgd ( Av 1); Cout ( Miller ) Cgd

The upper cutoff freq.,


fcu(input) , happens when:
X Ctot
i.e.,

1
2 f cu ( input )Ctot

f cu ( input )

Rs

1
2 Rs Ctot

huge

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (for FET amp.)(cont.)


There are two low-pass filter
(2) output RC circuit
The upper cutoff freq.,
fcu(output) , happens when:

X Rd
i.e.,

1
2 f cu ( output )Cout ( Miller )

f cu ( output )

Rd

1
2 Rd Cout ( Miller )

Av 1

Av

Cout ( Miller ) C gd

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

What is the upper cutoff frequency due to the input circuit?


Assume RS = 600 , re = 3.5 , = 200,
Cbe = 6 pF, Cbc = 3.5 pF, and Av = 9.7
Rth RS R1 R2 ( RE1 r )
'
e

600 10 k 4.7 k 200(100 + 3.5 V)


in
= 493
Cin (tot ) Cbe CMiller Cbe Cbc ( Av ( mid ) 1)
6 pF + 3.5 pF(9.7 +1) = 43 pF
1
1
fc

7.4 MHz
2 Rth C 2 493 43 pF

+VCC
+12 V

C1

R1
10 k

RC
C3
1.0 k

Vout

10 F
2N3904

1.0 F
R2
4.7 k

RE1
100
RE2
330

C2
47 F

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

High-Frequency Response (overall)

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Total Amplifier-Frequency Response


In general, the overall frequency response is the combination of
three lower critical frequencies due to coupling and bypass
capacitors and two upper critical frequencies due to internal
capacitances.
The ideal Bode plot for a typical amplifier is:
Av (dB)

The bandwidth is measured between


the dominant critical frequencies.

Av(mid)

BW
0

fc1 fc2

fc3
fcl

fc4
fcu

fc5

BW f cu ( dom ) f cl ( dom )
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Topics Covered in Chapter 10

10-1 Basic Concepts


10-2 The Decibel
10-3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response
10-5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response
10-6 Frequency Response of Multistage
Amplifiers
10-7 Frequency Response Measurements
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Total Amplifier-Frequency Response


For multistage amplifiers, the individual stages have an effect on the
overall response.
In general, with different cutoff frequencies, the dominant lower cutoff
frequency is equal to the highest fcl; the dominant upper critical
frequency is equal to lowest fcu.
BW f cu ( dom ) f cl ( dom )
When the critical frequencies for n-multistage amplifiers are equal (say fcl

and fcu) , then the lower critical frequency, fcl , is increased as given by
f cl'

f cl

2 n 1

, and the upper critical frequency, fcu , is reduced as given by


1

f cu' f cu 2 n 1
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Key Terms
Decibel Alogarithmicmeasureoftheratioofone
powerleveltoanotheroronevoltageto
another.
Midrangegain Thegainthatoccursfortherangeof
frequenciesbetweenthelowerandupper
criticalfrequencies.
Critical Thefrequencyatwhichtheresponseofan
frequency amplifierorfilteris3dBlessthanatmidrange

Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved

Key Terms
Rolloff Therateofdecreaseinthegainofanamplifier
aboveorbelowthecriticalfrequencies.
Decade Atemtimesincreaseordecreaseinthevalue
ofaquantitysuchasfrequency.
BodePlot AnidealizedgraphofthegainindBverses
frequencyusedtographicallyillustratethe
responseofanamplifierorfilter.
Bandwidth Thecharacteristicofcertaintypesofelectronic
circuitsthatspecifiestheusablerangeof
frequenciesthatpassfrominputtooutput.
Slides Adapted mainly from Electronic Devices: Conventional Current Version, Thomas L. Floyd, 8th Ed. , Pearson Education, Inc. and
partly from Electronics Principles, 7th Ed., A. Malvino and D. J. Bates, McGRAW-HILL, Inc. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved