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Linear momentum and Collisions

Chapter 9

Center of mass and linear momentum


I. The center of mass
- System of particles /

- Solid body

II. Newtons Second law for a system of particles


III. Linear Momentum
- System of particles / - Conservation
IV. Collision and impulse
- Single collision / - Series of collisions
V. Momentum and kinetic energy in collisions
VI. Inelastic collisions in 1D
-Completely inelastic collision/
Velocity of COM

VII. Elastic collisions in 1D


VIII. Collisions in 2D
IX. Systems with varying mass
X. External forces and internal energy
changes

I. Center of mass

The center of mass of a body or a system of


bodies is the point that moves as though all the
mass were concentrated there and all external
forces were applied there.

System of particles:
Two particles of masses m1 and m2 separated by a distance d

Origin of reference system


coincides with m1

xcom

m2

d
m1 m2

System of particles:
Choice of the reference
origin is arbitrary Shift
of the coordinate system
but center of mass is still
at the same distance
from each particle.
The center of mass lies somewhere between the two particles.
General:

xcom

m1 x1 m2 x2 m1 x1 m2 x2

m1 m2
M

M = total mass of the system

System of particles:
We can extend this equation to a general situation for n particles
that strung along x-axis. The total mass of the system
M=m1+m2+m3++mn The location of center of the mass:

xcom

m1 x1 m2 x2 m3 x3 ........ mn xn
1

M
M

m x
i 1

i i

3D:

xcom

1 n

mi xi
M i 1

ycom

1 n

mi yi
M i 1

zcom

1 n

mi zi
M i 1

System of particles:
3D: The vector form
Position of the
particle:
Position COM

ri xi i yi j zi k

rcom xcomi ycom j zcom k

1 n
rcom
mi ri
M i 1

M = mass of the
object

Solid bodies:
Continuous distribution of matter. Particles = dm
(differential mass elements).
3D: xcom

x dm

ycom

y dm

zcom

z dm

M = mass of the object


Assumption: Uniform objects uniform density

xcom

1
x dV
V

ycom

1
y dV
V

zcom

dm M

dV V
1
z dV
V

The center of mass of an object with a point, line or


plane of symmetry lies on that point, line or plane.
The center of mass of an object does not need to lie
within the object (Examples: doughnut, horseshoe )

Problem solving tactics:


(1) Use objects symmetry.
(2) If possible, divide object in several parts. Treat each of
these parts as a particle located at its own center of mass.
(3) Chose your axes. Use one particle of the system as origin
of your reference system or let the symmetry lines be your
axis.

II. Newtons second law for a system of particles


Motion of the center of mass:
Center of the mass of the system moves as a particle
whose mass is equal to the total mass of the system.

Fnet Macom
Fnet is the net of all external forces that act on the
system. Internal forces (from one part of the system to
another are not included).
The system is closed: no mass enters or leaves the
system during the movement. (M=total system mass).
acom is the acceleration of the systems center of mass.

Fnet , x Macom, x

Fnet , y Macom, y

Fnet , z Macom, z

Mrcom m1r1 m2 r2 m3 r3 ... mn rn

drcom
drn
dr1
dr2
Prove:
M
m1
m2
...... mn
dt
dt
dt
dt

Mvcom m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 ... mn vn


Macom m1a1 m2 a2 m3 a3 ... mn an F1 F2 F3 ... Fn


(*) includes forces that the particles of the system exert on
each other (internal forces) and forces exerted on the
particles from outside the system (external).

Newtons third law internal forces from third-law force


pairs cancel out in the sum (*) Only external forces.

(*)

III. Linear momentum


The linear momentum of a particle is a vector p defined as:

p mv
Momentum is a vector with magnitude equal mv and have
direction of v .

SI unit of the momentum is kg-meter/second

Newton II law
in terms of momentum:
The time rate of change of the momentum of a particle is
equal to the net force acting on the particle and is in the
direction of the force.

dp d (mv )
dv
Fnet

m
ma
dt
dt
dt

System of particles:

he total linear moment P is the vector sum of the


ndividual particles linear momentum.

P p1 p2 p3 .... pn m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 ... mn vn

P Mvcom
The linear momentum of a system of particles is
equal to the product of the total mass M of the
system and the velocity of the center of mass.

dvcom
dP
dP
M
Macom Fnet
dt
dt
dt
Net external force acting on the system.

Conservation:
If no external force acts on a closed, isolated system of
particles, the total linear momentum P of the system cannot
change.

P const

(Closed , isolated system)

dP
Fnet 0
Pf Pi
dt

Closed: no matter passes through the system boundary in


any direction.

Conservation of Linear Momentum


If no net external force acts on the system of particles the total
linear momentum P of the system cannot change.
Each component of the linear momentum is conserved
separately if the corresponding component of the net external
force is zero.
If the component of the net external force on a closed
system is zero along an axis component of the linear
momentum along that axis cannot change.
The momentum is constant if no external forces act on a
closed particle system. internal forces can change the linear
momentum of portions of the system, but they cannot
change the total linear momentum of the entire system.

IV. Collision and impulse


Collision: isolated event in which two or more bodies exert
relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time.
Impulse: Measures the strength and duration of the collision
force
Third law force pair

FR = - FL
Single collision

p
dp

t
F
dp F (t )dt dp t F (t )dt

dt
p
t

J t F (t )dt p f pi p
f

Impulse-linear momentum theorem


The change in the linear momentum of a body in a
collision is equal to the impulse that acts on that body.



p p f pi J

Units: kg m/s

p fx pix p x J x
p fy piy p y J y
p fz piz p z J z
Favg such that:
Area under F(t) vs t curve
= Area under Favg vs t

J Favg t

Series of collisions
Target fixed in place
n-projectiles n p = Total
change in linear momentum
(projectiles)

J and p have opposite


Impulse on the target: J n p directions, pf < pi p
left J to the right.
n/t Rate at which the
J n
n
Favg

p
mv projectiles collide with the
t t
t
target.

m nm in t Favg

v m/t Rate at which mass


collides with the target.
t

a) Projectiles stop upon impact: v = vf-vi = 0-v = -v


b) Projectiles bounce: v = vf-vi = -v-v = -2v

V. Momentum and kinetic energy in collisions


Assumptions: Closed systems (no mass enters or leaves
them)
Isolated systems (no external forces act on
the bodies within the system)
Elastic collision:

If the total kinetic energy of the system of


two
colliding
bodies
is
unchanged
(conserved) by the collision.

Inelastic collision: The kinetic energy of the system is not


conserved some goes into thermal
energy, sound, etc.
Completely inelastic collision: After the collision the bodies lose
energy and stick together.

Velocity of the center of mass:


In a closed, isolated
system, the velocity of
COM of the system cannot
be changed by a collision.
(No net external force).

P Mvcom (m1 m2 )vcom

P conserved p1i p2i p1 f p2 f

p1i p2i p1 f p2 f
P
vcom

m1 m2 m1 m2
m1 m2
Completely inelastic
collision v = vcom

VII. Elastic collisions in 1D


(Total kinetic energy before collision ) (Total kinetic energy after collision)

In an elastic collision, the


kinetic
energy
of
each
colliding body may change,
but the total kinetic energy of
the system does not change.
Stationary target:
Closed, isolated
system

m1v1i m1v1 f m2v2 f

1
1
1
2
2
m1vi1 m1v1 f m2 v22 f
2
2
2
m1 (v1i v1 f ) m2 v2 f

Linear momentum

Kinetic energy

(1)

m1 (v12i v12f ) m2 v22 f m1 (v1i v1 f )(v1i v1 f )

(2)

Stationary target:
Dividing (2) /(1) v2 f v1i v1 f
From (1) v2 f

m1

(v1i v1 f )
m2

(1) in (3) v1 f v2 f
m m2
v1 f 1
v1i
m1 m2

(3)

m1
v1i
(v1i v1 f ) v1i
m2
v2 f

2m1

v1i
m1 m2

v2f >0 always


v1f >0 if m1>m2 forward mov.
v1f <0 if m1<m2 bounce back

Equal masses: m1=m2 v1f=0 and v2f = v1i In head-on


collisions bodies of equal masses simply exchange
velocities.

Massive target: m2>>m1 v1f -v1i and

v2f
(2m1/m2)v1i Body 1 bounces back with
approximately same speed. Body 2 moves forward
at low speed.
v1 f

m1 m2
v1i
m1 m2

v2 f

2m1
v1i
m1 m2

Massive projectile: m1>>m2 v1f v1i and v2f


2v1i Body 1 keeps on going barely lowed by the
collision. Body 2 charges ahead at twice the initial
speed of the projectile.

VII. Elastic collisions in 1D


Moving target:
Closed, isolated system

m1v1i m2 v2i m1v1 f m2 v2 f

Linear momentum

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
m1vi1 m2v2i m1v1 f m2 v22 f
2
2
2
2
m1 (v1i v1 f ) m2 (v2i v2 f )

Kinetic energy

(1)

m1 (v1i v1 f )(v1i v1 f ) m2 (v2i v2 f )(v2i v2 f )


m1 m2
2m2
Dividing (2) /(1) v1 f
v1i
v2 i
m1 m2
m1 m2
v2 f

2m1
m2 m1

v1i
v2 i
m1 m2
m1 m2

( 2)

VIII. Collisions in 2D
Closed, isolated system

P1i P2i P1 f P2 f
Linear momentum conserved
Elastic collision

K1i K 2i K1 f K 2 f
Example:

Kinetic energy conserved

x axis m1v1i m1v1 f cos 1 m2v2 f cos 2

y axis 0 m1v1 f sin 1 m2 v2 f sin 2


If the collision is elastic

1
1
1
2
2
2
m1v1i m1v1 f m2 v2 f
2
2
2

IV. Systems with varying mass


Example: most of the mass of a rocket on its launching is fuel
that gets burned during the travel.
System:rocket + exhaust products
Closed and isolated mass of this
system does not change as the
rocket accelerates.
P=const Pi=Pf
After dt

dM < 0

Mv dM U ( M dM ) (v dv)
Linear momentum of
exhaust products
released during the
interval dt

Linear momentum
of rocket at the
end of dt

Velocity of rocket relative to frame = (velocity of rocket relative


to products)+ (velocity of products relative to frame)

(v dv) vrel U U (v dv) vrel


Mv dM U ( M dM ) (v dv)
Mv dM [(v dv ) vrel ] ( M dM )(v dv)
Mv vdM dvdM vrel dM Mv Mdv vdM dvdM Mv vrel dM Mdv

dM
dv
Mdv vrel dM
vrel M
dt
dt
R=Rate at which the rocket losses mass= -dM/dt = rate of
fuel consumption
First rocket
dM
dv

vrel M
R vrel Ma
equation
dt
dt

vf

Mf

dM
dv
dM
dM

vrel M dv
vrel dv vrel
vrel ln M f ln M i
dt
dt
M
v
M M
Mi
v f vi vrel ln
Mf

Second rocket equation

Two blocks of masses M and 3M are placed on a horizontal,


frictionless surface. A light spring is attached to one of them, and
the blocks are pushed together with the spring between them. A
cord initially holding the blocks together is burned; after this, the
block of mass 3M moves to the right with a speed of 2.00 m/s.
(a) What is the speed of the block of mass M? (b) Find the
original elastic potential energy in the spring if M = 0.350 kg.

(a) For the system of two blocks


or

p 0

pi p f

Therefore,

0 Mvm 3 M 2.00 m s

Solving gives:

vm 6.00 m s

(b)

(motion toward the left).

1 2 1
1
2
kx MvM 3 M v32M 8.40 J
2
2
2

A 60.0-kg person running at an initial speed of 4.00 m/s jumps onto a 120-kg cart
initially at rest (Figure P9.55). The person slides on the carts top surface and finally
comes to rest relative to the cart. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the
person and the cart is 0.400. Friction between the cart and ground can be
neglected. (a) Find the final velocity of the person and cart relative to the ground.
(b) Find the friction force acting on the person while he is sliding across the top
surface of the cart. (c) How long does the friction force act on the person? (d) Find
the change in momentum of the person and the change in momentum of the cart.
(e) Determine the displacement of the person relative to the ground while he is
sliding on the cart. (f) Determine the displacement of the cart relative to the ground
while the person is sliding. (g) Find the change in kinetic energy of the person. (h)
Find the change in kinetic energy of the cart. (i) Explain why the answers to (g) and
(h) differ. (What kind of collision is this, and what accounts for the loss of
mechanical energy?)

(a)

60.0 kg 4.00

m s 120 60.0 kg v f

v f 1.33 m s i
(b)

Fy 0

n 60.0 kg 9.80 m s 2 0
f k k n 0.400 588 N 235 N

fk 235 N

pi I p f

(c) For the person,

mvi Ft mv f

60.0 kg 4.00

m s 235 N t 60.0 kg 1.33 m s

t 0.680 s

(d) person:
cart:
(e)

(f)

mv f mv 60.0 kg 1.33 4.00 m s 160 N s i

120 kg 1.33 m s 0 160 N s i

xf x

1
1
vi v f t 4.00 1.33 m s 0.680 s
2
2

1.81 m

1
1
x f x vi v f t 0 1.33 m s 0.680 s 0.454 m
2
2

1
1
1
1
2
2
mv 2f mv 2 60.0 kg 1.33 m s 60.0 kg 4.00 m s 427 J
2
2
2
2

(g)

(h)
(i)

1
1
1
2
2
2
mv f mv 120.0 kg 1.33 m s 0 107 J
2
2
2

The force exerted by the person on the cart must equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction to the force exerted by the cart on the person. The
changes in momentum of the two objects must be equal in magnitude and
must add to zero. Their changes in kinetic energy are different in
magnitude and do not add to zero. The following represent two ways of
thinking about way. The distance the cart moves is different from the
distance moved by the point of applicatio9n of the friction force to the cart.
The total change of mechanical energy for both objects together, -320J,
becomes +320J of additional internal energy in this perfectly inelastic
collision.