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Anchorage

Presented By
MOHAMMAD NAZMUS SAQUIB
Batch : IS-29
Department of Orthodontics &
Dentofacial Orthopedics.

DEFINITION:
Moyers:
Resistance to displacement.
T. M. Graber:
The nature and degree of resistance to
displacement offered by an anatomic unit when
used for the purpose of effecting tooth
movement.

CLASSIFICATION:
MOYERS classified Anchorage as Follows:
According to the site of Anchorage
i.

Intra-oral
-Anchorage established within the mouth.
eg. teeth, alveolar bone, basal bone.

ii.

Extra-oral
-Anchorage obtained outside the oral cavity.

iii.

a)

Cervical. eg. Neck straps

b)

Occipital. eg. Head gear

c)

Cranial. eg. High pull headgear

d)

Facial. eg. Face mask

Muscular
-Anchorage derived from action of muscles.
eg. vestibular shields

CONTINUED..
According to manner of force application
i.

Simple Anchorage- when a teeth with a longer root area is used to


move other teeth with smaller root area in the same dental arch.

ii.

Stationary Anchorage- anchorage in which the resistance to the


movement of one or more teeth comes from the resistance to
bodily movement of the anchorage unit

CONTINUED..
i.

Reciprocal- The anchorage is said to be reciprocal in those case,


where it is designed that, two teeth or groups of teeth shall move to an
equal extent towards each other or in opposite direction. eg. dental
arch expansion, closing of midline diastema, cross bite elastics.

CONTINUED..
According to jaws involved:
i.

Intra maxillary- Anchorage obtained from a tooth/teeth in one jaw to

move the tooth/teeth in the same jaw.

ii.

Inter maxillary- where the teeth in one arch are used for anchorage to
move the teeth in other arch.

CONTINUED..
According to the number of anchorage units:
i. Single or primary anchorage.
ii. Compound anchorage.
iii. Multiple or reinforced anchorage.

CAUSES OF LOSS OF
ANCHORAGE:
Not wearing the appliance adequately.
Too much activation of springs or active components
Presence of acrylic or any obstruction on the path of tooth movement
Poor retention of appliance.
Anterior bite plane: as this withdraws the occlusal interlock,
Anchor root area, not sufficiently greater, then the root area of tooth or
teeth to be used,
If appliance encourage tipping movement of anchor teeth and bodily
movement of the teeth to be moved.

MEANS TO DETECT
ANCHORAGE LOSS:
Position of another teeth, in relation to the teeth in the same and opposite
arch.
Increase in overjet.
Fit of the appliance in patients mouth.
Measurements of the distance between anchor teeth and midline.
Measurements from palatal rugae and frenum.
Observation of the spacing mesial/distal to the anchor teeth.
Inclination of the anchor teeth.
Radiological examination.

ANCHORAGE LOSS AND


SIGNS:
Anchorage loss is the movement of the reaction unit or the anchor unit
instead of the teeth to be moved.
Signs:
Mesial movement of molars.
Closure of extraction space by movement of posterior teeth.
Proclination of anterior teeth.
Spacing of teeth.
Increase in overjet.
Change in molar relations.
Buccal cross bite of upper posteriors.

MEANS TO INCREASE
ANCHORAGE VALUE:
Intermaxillary traction.
Inclined anterior bite plane.
Extra oral traction occipital, occipital-cervical or cervical.
Toe in & Tip back bends [Anchor bends for posterior anchorage]
and Apical torque [for anterior anchorage] on arch wire so that
anchor teeth can only move bodily.
Banding or using good number of teeth for anchorage or moving small
number of tooth at a time.
Use of palatal and lingual arches.
Use of vertical springs on anchor teeth to encourage bodily movement
only.

ADVANCEMENT IN
ANCHORAGE:
Micro implant / Temporary Anchorage Device / Screw implant

BIBLIOGRAPHY
T. M. Graber, R.L. Vanarsdall, Orthodontics, Current Principles and
Techniques, "Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Orthodontics", D.
M. Sarver, W.R. Proffit, J. L. Ackerman, Mosby, 2000
Proffit WR, Fields HW, Sarver DM. Contemporary Orthodontics. 4th
edition, Mosby Inc., St.Louis, MO, USA, 2007
Mitchel. L. An Introduction to Orthodontics. 3 editions. Oxford
University Press. 2007
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261404153_A_to_Z_ORTH
ODONTICS_Volume_04