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DEFINITION OF CPR

CardioPulmonar
y Resucitation

Heart disease
Heart disease is the number
one killer in the United States
today, and over 60% of all
victims will die before they
reach the hospital!
The heart lies between the
sternum and the spine.

What are the functions of CPR?


A. As basic life support to maintain a viable (living)

victim for advanced life support. (EMS)


EMS stands for Emergency Medical Service
B. To minimize the occurrence of panic during times of
emergency.
C. For early diagnosis and detection of the symptoms
of heart attack.
Be able to recognize the signs of a heart attack.

The greatest risk of death from heart attack is in


the initial two hours after the onset of the
symptoms
60% of all victims die before they reach the
hospital. (paramedics now stabilize the victim at
the site before transporting.)

What does CPR stand for?


C = Cardio (heart)
P = Pulmonary (lungs)
R = Resuscitation (recover)

Oxygen is the basic requirement for breathing and


every
Living cell in the body
The function of the epiglottis is to guard the entran

What types of situations


might cause a victim to
need CPR?

Heart attack
Electrocution
Drug overdose
Accidents
Stroke
Diabetes

Choking
Poisoning
Smoke
Inhalation
Epilepsy
Suffocation
Drowning

Emergency Situations Requiring


CPR and Emergency First Aid

AlcoholOverdoseAlcoholPoisoning
DrugorMedicineOverdose
ChokingAirwayObstruction
AutoAccident
ElectricalShock
GunShot
Stabbing/KnifeWound
SmokeInhalation
Drowning
Poisoning
HeatExhaustion
OverExposureto
ColdTemperatures

What are the real


symptoms of a heart
attack?

Uncomfortable pressure and squeezing,


usually located in the center of the chest
Pain may spread to shoulders, arms, neck,
and back (usually on the left side)
The pain is not always severe and may
come and go (sharp, stabbing twinges of
pain usually are not signals of heart attack)
Sweating, nausea, shortness of breath,
feeling of weakness
May occur in either sex, even young
adults, and not necessarily during
physical or emotional stress.

How does the heart


work?

The right side of the heart receives


deoxygenated blood from the body
which it then pump to the lungs
(through the pulmonary artery) where
carbon dioxide is exchanged for
oxygen.
The left side of the heart receives the
oxygenated blood from the lungs
(through the pulmonary vein) which it
then pumps through the atrium to the
ventricle; from the ventricle the blood
is pumped through the aorta to the rest
of the body.

How to help a heart attack


victim that is conscious
Help the victim into a
comfortable position
Sitting if he or she is short of breath
Lying down if he or she is light headed

Loosen clothing around neck


and waist.
Call an ambulance. Call 108!

Definitions
Coronary Heart Disease the blood supply
to a part of the heart is blocked; that part of
the heart not receiving oxygen begins to die.
Respiratory Arrest breathing stops
Cardiac Arrest the heart has stopped
Stroke the blood supply to a part of the
brain is blocked; those brain cells not
receiving oxygen begin to die.
Clinical Death means the heart and
breathing have stopped.
Heart attack A sudden severe instance of
abnormal heart function.

Definitions Continued
Brain Death Occurs 4-6 minutes
after clinical death when the cells
of the brain begin to die.
Biological death- all systems cease
to function. Organ systems have
shut down and are no longer
working

General CPR; In
Three Simple Steps:
ABC

1. Airway head tilt, chin lift


2. Breathing look, listen, feel
3. Circulation give chest
compressions

Adult; over 8 years old;


CPR
check for
unresponsiveness and call
A. Check the Victim
for
unresponsiveness.
for
help
Gently shake them and ask Are you all
right, are you okay?
B. If the victim doesnt respond SEND
SOMEONE TO GET HELP. Call 911 and
return to the victim.

Adult CPR
Airway and breathing
C. Use the head tilt, chin lift
method to open airway. Look,
listen and feel for breathing.
D. If the victim is not breathing
normally, pinch the nose and
cover their mouth with yours.
Give 2 full breaths until you
see the chest rise. Each
breath should last about 1
second.
E. With each breath the chest
should lower and rise so you
know that air is getting in.

Adult CPR
F. After giving two breaths,
immediately begin chest
compressions.
G. Use the nipple line (armpit
over) to determine the proper
place to do chest compressions.
H. Push down on the chest 1 1/2
to 2 inches, 30 times right
between the nipples where the
heart lies.(ratio 30:2)
J. Pump at the rate of 100
compressions / 1 minute
K. If you see chest movement, put
the victim in the side position in
case they vomit.

Chest compressions should be performed on the


lower

For each compression it is important to push


down
far enough and to be sure the chest is
completely
released after each compression. This will

Recovery
Position

What is the
Recovery Position?
First Aid procedure to use if
the person is unconscious,
breathing and have a pulse.
It is a safe position to put
them in while you are waiting
for the EMS to arrive
Allows them to breathe easily
and prevents them from
choking on their tongue or
any vomit.

Good Samaritan Law


Lawthatprotectsrescuersfromprosecutionorcivil
lawsuits,unlesstheiractionsconstitutewillful
misconductandnegligence.
TheRescuerMUSTcomplywithproper
emergencyfirstaidandCPRguidelines;actingin
goodfaithbybeingprudentandresponsibleintheir
rescueefforts.