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Subject -EMI

Unit 1 : Block
schematics of
measuring system

The static characteristics of an instrument are, in general,
considered for instruments which are used to
measure an unvarying process condition. All the static
performance characteristics are obtained by one
form or another of a process called calibration. There are a
number of related definitions (or
characteristics), which are described below, such as
accuracy% precision, repeatability, resolution,
errors, sensitivity, etc.
l. Instrument: A device or mechanism used to determine
the present value of the quantity under

2. Measurement: The process of determining the amount,

degree, or capacity by comparison (direct or
indirect) with the accepted standards of the system units
being used.
3. Accuracy: The degree of exactness (closeness) of a
measurement compared to the expected (desired)
4. Resolution: The smallest change in a measured
variable to which an instrument will respond.
5. Precision: A measure of the consistency or
repeatability of measurements, i.e. successive readings
does not differ. (Precision is the consistency of the
instrument output for a given value of input).
6. Expected value: The design value, i.e. the most
probable value that calculations indicate one should
expect to measure.
7 Error: The deviation of the true value from the desired

8. Sensitivity: The ratio of the change in output

(response) of the instrument to a change of input or
measured variable.
Instruments rarely respond instantaneously to
changes in the measured variables. Instead, they
slowness or sluggishness due to such things as
mass, thermal capacitance, fluid capacitance or
capacitance. In addition to this, pure delay in time is
encountered where the instrument waits
for some reaction to take place. Such industrial
instruments are nearly always used for measuring
that fluctuate with time. Therefore, the dynamic and
transient behaviour of the instrument is as

The dynamic behavior of an instrument is determined

by subjecting its primary element (sensing
element) to some unknown and predetermined
variations in the measured quantity. The three most
common variations in the measured quantity are as
l. Step change in which the primary element is
subjected to an instantaneous and finite change in
measured variable.
2.Linear change, in which the primary element is
following a measured variable, changing linearly with
3,Sinusoidal change, in which the primary element
follows a measured variable, the magnitude of
which changes in accordance with a sinusoidal
function of constant amplitude

The dynamic characteristics of an instrument are

(i) speed of response
(ii) Fidelity
(iii) Lag
(iv) dynamic error.
(i) Speed of Response: It is the rapidity with which
an instrument responds to changes in the
(ii) Fidelity: It is the degree to which an instrument
indicates the changes in the measured variable
without dynamic error (faithful reproduction).
(iii) Lag: It is the retardation or delay in the response
of an instrument to changes in the measured

(iv) Dynamic Error: It is the difference between the

true values of a quantity changing with time and
the value indicated by the instrument, if no static error
is assumed.
When measurement problems are concerned with
rapidly varying quantities, the dynamic relations
between the instruments input and output are
generally Defined by the use of differential

2.Static characteristics
The set of criteria defined for the instruments, which
are used to measure the quantities which are
slowly varying with time or mostly constant, i.e.,
do not vary with time, is calledstatic
The various static characteristics are:


vi) Repeatability
vii) Resolution
viii) Threshold
ix) Drift
x) Stability
xi) Tolerance
xii) Range or span

3 Accuracy
It is the degree of closeness with which the reading
approaches the true value of the quantity to be
measured. The accuracy can be expressed in
following ways:
a) Point accuracy:
Such accuracy is specified at only one particular
point of scale.
It does not give any information about the
accuracy at any other Point on the scale.
b) Accuracy as percentage of scale span:
When an instrument as uniform scale, its

c) Accuracy as percentage of true value:

The best way to conceive the idea of accuracy is
to specify it in
terms of the true value of the quantity being
measured. Precision: It is the measure of
reproducibility i.e., given a fixed value of a
quantity, precision is a measure of the degree of
agreement within a group of measurements. The
precision is composed of two characteristics:
a) Conformity:
Consider a resistor having true value as
2385692 , which is being measured by an
ohmmeter. But the reader can read consistently,
a value as 2.4 M due to the nonavailability of

b) Number of significant figures:

The precision of the measurement is obtained from
the number of significant figures, in which the
reading is expressed. The significant figures
convey the actual information about the magnitude
& the measurement precision of the quantity. The
precision can be mathematically expressed as:

Where, P = precision
Xn = Value of nth measurement
Xn = Average value the set of measurement

precisionare defined in terms of systematic and
random errors. The more common definition
associates accuracy with systematic errors and
precision with random errors. Another definition,
advanced byISO, associatestruenesswith
systematic errors and precision with random
errors, and defines accuracy as the combination
of both trueness and precision.

5. Resolution
The smallest change in a measured variable to
which an instrument will respond.

6.Types of Errors
The static error of a measuring instrument is the
numerical difference between the true value of a
quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e.
repeated measurement of the same quantity give
different indications.
Static errors are categorized as gross errors or human
systematic errors
Random errors
1. Gross Errors
This error is mainly due to human mistakes in reading or
in using instruments or errors in recording observations.

Errors may also occur due to incorrect adjustments of

instruments and computational mistakes . These errors
cannot be treated mathematically. The complete
elimination of gross errors is not possible, but one can
minimize them .Some errors are easily detected while
others may be elusive. One of the basic gross errors that
occur frequently is the improper use of an Instrument the
error can be minimized by taking proper care in reading
and recording the measurement parameter. In general,
indicating instruments change ambient conditions to
some extent when connected into a complete circuit.
2. Systematic Errors
These errors occur due to shortcomings of, the
instrument, such as defective or worn parts, or ageing
or effects of the

environment on the instrument.

These errors are sometimes referred to as bias, and they
influence all
measurements of a quantity alike. A constant uniform
deviation of the operation of an instrument is
known as a systematic error. There are basically three
types of systematic errors
(i) Instrumental
(ii) Environmental
(iii) Observational
(i) Instrumental Errors
Instrumental errors are inherent in measuring instruments,
because of their mechanical structure. For example, in the
D'Arsonval movement friction in the bearings of various
components, irregular

spring tensions, stretching of the spring or reduction in

due to improper handling or over loading
of the instrument. Instrumental errors can be avoided by
(a) Selecting a suitable instrument for the particular
measurement applications.
(b) Applying correction factors after determining the amount
of instrumental error.
(c) Calibrating the instrument against a standard.
(ii) Environmental Errors
Environmental errors are due to conditions external to the
measuring device, including conditions in the area
the instrument, such as the effects of change in
humidity, barometric pressure or of magnetic or electrostatic

(iii) Observational Errors

Observational errors are errors introduced by the observer. The
most common error is the parallax error introduced in reading a
meter scale, and the error of estimation when obtaining a
reading from a meter scale.These errors are caused by the habits
of individual observers. For example, an observer may always
introduce an error by consistently holding his head too far to the
left while reading a needle and scale reading.
In general, systematic errors can also be subdivided into static
and dynamic Errors. Static errors are caused by limitations of the
measuring device or the physical laws governing its behavior.
Dynamic errors are caused by the instrument not responding fast
enough to follow the changes in a measured variable.

7. Gaussian Errors
Among the models proposed for the spot rate of
Gaussian models are probably the most widely
used; they have
the great virtue that many of the prices of bonds
and derivatives
can be easily computed in closed form. One
drawback is that the
spot rate process r, being Gaussian, may
occasionally take
negative values, though it is often claimed that if
the probability
of negative values is small, then there is no need to
worry. It

that interest rates can go negative, we can expect that Gaussian

models will give prices at odds with intuition. But there are
other, more subtle, examples, such as bonds of long maturity.
The discrepancies which arise for these are happening because
the bond price is of the form E exp(X) for some Gaussian
variable X and, although it may be very unlikely that X should be
negative, when it is, we are exponentiating X, and the
contribution to the expectation can be overwhelming. For such
derivatives, the prices which the Gaussian models predict can be
absurd, yet we have no idea what the true price should be. This
is because we have not clearly decided what should be the true
interest rate model (which for convenience we approximate by a
Gaussian). Until we address this, Gaussian models can continue
to spring nasty surprises on us. In this article, we explore the
problem, and suggest possible remedies.

To investigate this, we shall take the simplest

model, the model of Vasicek [8], in which the spot
rate process (rt)t0 solves a stochastic differential
equation driven by a Brownian motion (Wt)t0

drt = dWt + ( rt)dt,

(1) where , and are positive constants. 1 Firstly,
lets look at the prices of zero-strike caps and floors;
if the zero-strike floor has a significantly positive
price, this is a sign of trouble. In Table 1, you find the
prices for zero-strike caps/floors for two different
scenarios: in Scenario A, = 0.01, = 0.05, =
0.125 and r0 = 0.02, while in Scenario B, = 0.025,
= 0.10, = 0.125 and r0 = 0.05. The prices are
calculated assuming a sum borrowed of $ 1000.

8. Root Sum Squares

The root sum squared (RSS) method is a statistical
tolerance analysis method. In many cases the actual
individual part dimensions occur near the center of the
tolerance range with very few parts with actual
dimensions near the tolerance limits. This of course
assumes the parts are mostly centered and within the
tolerance range.
RSS assumes the normal distribution describes the
variation of dimensions. The bell shaped curve is
symmetrical and full described with two parameters,
the mean, , and the standard deviation, .
The variances, not the standard deviations, are additive
and provide an estimate of the

combined part variation. The result of adding the means

and taking the root sum square of the standard
deviations provides an estimate of the normal
distribution of the tolerance stack. The formula to
combine standard deviations of the stack is

Where iis the standard deviation of the ith part,

And, n is the number of parts in the stack,
And, sysis the standard deviation of the stack.
The normal distribution has the property that
approximately 68.2% of the values fall within one
standard deviation of the mean. Likewise, 95.4% within
2 standard deviation and 99.7% within 3 standard

9.Measuring instruments dc
A voltmeter is an instrument that measures the
difference in electrical potential between two
points in an electric circuit. An analog voltmeter
moves a pointer across a scale in proportion to
the circuit's voltage; a digital voltmeter provides
a numerical display. Any measurement that can
be converted to voltage can be displayed on a
meter that is properly calibrated; such
measurements includepressure , temperature,
and flow.

In order for a voltmeter to measure a device's

voltage, it must be connected in parallel to that
device . This is necessary because objects in
parallel experience the same potential difference.

10. D' Arsonval

An action caused by electromagnetic deflection, using a coil of
wire and a magnetized field. When current passes through the
coil, a needle is deflected.
Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field
proportional to the current is created. This effect is useful for
measuring current and is employed in many practical meters.
Since most of the meters in use have DArsonval movements,
which operate because of the magnetic effect, only this type will
be discussed in detail. The basic dc meter movement is known
as the DArsonval meter movement because it was first
employed by the French scientist, DArsonval, in making
electrical measurement.
This type of meter movement is a current measuring device
which is used in the ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter.
Basically, both the ammeter and the voltmeter are current
measuring instruments, the principal difference being the

method in which they are connected in a circuit.

While an ohmmeter is also basically a current
measuring instrument, it differs from the
ammeter and voltmeter in that it provides its own
source of power and contains other auxiliary
DArsonval Galvanometer :
This instrument is very commonly used in various
methods of resistance measurement and also in
d.c. potentiometer work.
Construction of DArsonval galvanometer:
The construction of DArsonval galvanometer is
shown in figure below. Let us discuss different
parts of DArsonval galvanometer.

1) Moving Coil:
It is the current carrying element. It is either
rectangular or
circular in shape and consists of number of turns of
fine wire.
This coil is suspended so that it is free to turn about
its vertical
axis of symmetry. It is arranged in a uniform, radial,
magnetic field in the air gap between pole pieces of
permanent magnet and iron core. The iron core is
spherical in
shape if the coil is circular but is cylindrical if the
coil is
rectangular. The iron core is used to provide a flux

narrower to decrease the air gap. Such a galvanometer is

sensitive, but its moment of inertia is smaller on account of
reduced radius and consequently a short periodic time.
2) Damping:
There is a damping torque present owing to production of
eddy currents in the metal former on which the coil is
mounted. Damping is also obtained by connecting a low
resistance across the galvanometer terminals. Damping
torque depends upon the resistance and we can obtain
critical damping by adjusting the value of resistance.
3) Suspension:
The coil is supported by a flat ribbon suspension which also
carries current to the coil. The other current connection in
a sensitive galvanometer is a coiled wire. This is called
the lower suspension and has a negligible torque effect.
This type of

galvanometer must be leveled carefully so that the

coil hangs
straight and centrally without rubbing the poles or
the soft iron
cylinder. Some portable galvanometers which do
not require
exact leveling have taut suspensions consisting
of straight flat
strips kept under tension for at the both top and at
bottom.The upper suspension consists of gold or
copper wire of
nearly 0.012-5 or 0.02-5 mm diameter rolled into
the form of a
ribbon. This is not very strong mechanically; so that
galvanometers must he handled carefully without

from the instrument, although meter may be

used for greater compactness.
5) Zero Setting:
A torsion head is provided for adjusting the position
of the coil and also for zero setting.

11. AC Voltmeters and Current

AC electromechanical meter movements come in two
basic arrangements: those based on DC movement
designs, and those engineered specifically for AC use.
Permanent-magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter
movements will not work correctly if directly connected
to alternating current, because the direction of needle
movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC.
(Figurebelow) Permanent-magnet meter movements,
like permanent-magnet motors, are devices whose
motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage
(or, you can think of it in terms of the direction of the


12. Ohmmeters
The purpose of an ohmmeter, of course, is to
measure the resistance placed between its leads.
This resistance reading is indicated through a
mechanical meter movement which operates on
electric current. The ohmmeter must then have
an internal source of voltage to create the
necessary current to operate the movement, and
also have appropriate ranging resistors to allow
just the right amount of current through the
movement at any given resistance.
Starting with a simple movement and battery
circuit, lets see how it would function as an

13. Multimeters
A multimeter measureselectrical propertiessuch asACor DC
voltage, current, and resistance. Rather than have separate
meters, this device combines avoltmeter, anammeter, and
an ohmmeter. Electricians and the general public might use it on
batteries, components, switches, power sources, and motors to
diagnose electrical malfunctions and narrow down their cause.
The two main kinds of a multimeter are analog and digital. A
digital device has an LCD screen that gives a straight forward
decimal read out, while an analog display moves a bar through a
scale of numbers and must be interpreted. Either type will work
over a specific range for each measurement, and users should
select one that's compatible with what he or she meters most,
from low-voltage power sources to high-voltage car batteries.
Multimeters are specified with a

sensitivity range, so consumers should make sure

they get the appropriate one.
As a voltmeter, the tool can measure the amount of
AC or DC voltage flowing through a circuit.
Voltage is a difference in potential energy
between the two points. A fan, for example,
should be drawing 120 volts (in the U.S.) from the
plug in the wall, but a computer scanner might
only draw 12 volts from a converter. To test these
components, the user should choose AC or DC,
select an upper limit on the voltage, and plug the
machine in question right into the multimeter,
without breaking the circuit. The readout should
reveal whether the device is functioning normally,
when compared to the data specified in the user's

As an ohmmeter, it finds the resistance in a circuit,

which is given inohms. A user can find the
resistance at any point in a circuit by first
unplugging the machine from awall outletor
battery source then putting in an approximate
range he or she expects to contain the number of
ohms. The measuring tool actually passes a small
amount of electricity from its own battery through
the circuit to measure resistance by comparing the
voltage sent out to what it receives.

14. True RMS

Responding Voltmeters
True RMS responding voltmeter Complex waveforms
are most accurately measured with a true RMS
responding voltmeter. This instrument produces a
meter indication by sensing waveform heating
power, which is proportional to the square of the
RMS value of the voltage. This heating power can
be measured by feeding an amplified version of
the input waveform to the heater element of a
thermocouple whose output voltage is then
proportional to E2 RMS. One difficulty with this
technique is that the thermocouple is often nonlinear in its behavior. This difficulty is overcome in
some instruments by placing two thermocouples
in the same thermal environment, as shown in

The effect of the nonlinear behavior of the couple in

the input circuit (the measuring thermocouple) is
cancelled by similar non-linear effects of the
couple in the feedback circuit (the balancing
thermocouple). The two couple elements form
part of a bridge in the input circuit of a DC
amplifier. The unknown AC input voltage is
amplified and applied to the heating element of
the measuring thermocouple. The application of
heat produces an output voltage that upsets the
balance of the bridge. The unbalance voltage is
amplified by the DC amplifier and fed back to the
heating element of the balancing thermocouple.
Bridge balance will be re-established when the
feedback current delivers sufficient heat to the
balancing thermocouple, so that the voltage
outputs of both couples are the same. At this
point the DC current in the heating element of the

input voltage and is indicated on the meter movement in the output

circuit of the DC amplifier. The true RMS value is measured
independently of the waveform of the AC signal, provided that the
peak excursions of the waveform do not exceed the dynamic
range of the AC amplifier.

A typical laboratory-type RMS responding voltmeter provides

accurate RMS readings of complex waveform having a crest factor
(ratio of peak value to RMS value) of 10/1. At 10 per cent of fullscale meter deflection, where there is less chance of amplifier
saturation, waveforms with crest factors as high as 100/1 could
be accommodated. Voltages throughout a range of 100 V to 300
V within a frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz may be measured
with most good instruments.