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Unit 1 : Block

schematics of

measuring system

1.Performance

Characteristics

STATIC CHARACTE RISTICS

The static characteristics of an instrument are, in general,

considered for instruments which are used to

measure an unvarying process condition. All the static

performance characteristics are obtained by one

form or another of a process called calibration. There are a

number of related definitions (or

characteristics), which are described below, such as

accuracy% precision, repeatability, resolution,

errors, sensitivity, etc.

l. Instrument: A device or mechanism used to determine

the present value of the quantity under

measurement.

degree, or capacity by comparison (direct or

indirect) with the accepted standards of the system units

being used.

3. Accuracy: The degree of exactness (closeness) of a

measurement compared to the expected (desired)

value.

4. Resolution: The smallest change in a measured

variable to which an instrument will respond.

5. Precision: A measure of the consistency or

repeatability of measurements, i.e. successive readings

does not differ. (Precision is the consistency of the

instrument output for a given value of input).

6. Expected value: The design value, i.e. the most

probable value that calculations indicate one should

expect to measure.

7 Error: The deviation of the true value from the desired

value.

(response) of the instrument to a change of input or

measured variable.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

Instruments rarely respond instantaneously to

changes in the measured variables. Instead, they

exhibit

slowness or sluggishness due to such things as

mass, thermal capacitance, fluid capacitance or

electric

capacitance. In addition to this, pure delay in time is

often

encountered where the instrument waits

for some reaction to take place. Such industrial

instruments are nearly always used for measuring

quantities

that fluctuate with time. Therefore, the dynamic and

transient behaviour of the instrument is as

important

by subjecting its primary element (sensing

element) to some unknown and predetermined

variations in the measured quantity. The three most

common variations in the measured quantity are as

follows:

l. Step change in which the primary element is

subjected to an instantaneous and finite change in

measured variable.

2.Linear change, in which the primary element is

following a measured variable, changing linearly with

time.

3,Sinusoidal change, in which the primary element

follows a measured variable, the magnitude of

which changes in accordance with a sinusoidal

function of constant amplitude

(i) speed of response

(ii) Fidelity

(iii) Lag

(iv) dynamic error.

(i) Speed of Response: It is the rapidity with which

an instrument responds to changes in the

measured

quantity.

(ii) Fidelity: It is the degree to which an instrument

indicates the changes in the measured variable

without dynamic error (faithful reproduction).

(iii) Lag: It is the retardation or delay in the response

of an instrument to changes in the measured

variable.

true values of a quantity changing with time and

the value indicated by the instrument, if no static error

is assumed.

When measurement problems are concerned with

rapidly varying quantities, the dynamic relations

between the instruments input and output are

generally Defined by the use of differential

equations

2.Static characteristics

The set of criteria defined for the instruments, which

are used to measure the quantities which are

slowly varying with time or mostly constant, i.e.,

do not vary with time, is calledstatic

characteristics.

The various static characteristics are:

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

vi)

Accuracy

Precision

Sensitivity

Linearity

Reproducibility

Repeatability

vi) Repeatability

vii) Resolution

viii) Threshold

ix) Drift

x) Stability

xi) Tolerance

xii) Range or span

3 Accuracy

It is the degree of closeness with which the reading

approaches the true value of the quantity to be

measured. The accuracy can be expressed in

following ways:

a) Point accuracy:

Such accuracy is specified at only one particular

point of scale.

It does not give any information about the

accuracy at any other Point on the scale.

b) Accuracy as percentage of scale span:

When an instrument as uniform scale, its

The best way to conceive the idea of accuracy is

to specify it in

terms of the true value of the quantity being

measured. Precision: It is the measure of

reproducibility i.e., given a fixed value of a

quantity, precision is a measure of the degree of

agreement within a group of measurements. The

precision is composed of two characteristics:

a) Conformity:

Consider a resistor having true value as

2385692 , which is being measured by an

ohmmeter. But the reader can read consistently,

a value as 2.4 M due to the nonavailability of

The precision of the measurement is obtained from

the number of significant figures, in which the

reading is expressed. The significant figures

convey the actual information about the magnitude

& the measurement precision of the quantity. The

precision can be mathematically expressed as:

Where, P = precision

Xn = Value of nth measurement

Xn = Average value the set of measurement

values

4.precision

precisionare defined in terms of systematic and

random errors. The more common definition

associates accuracy with systematic errors and

precision with random errors. Another definition,

advanced byISO, associatestruenesswith

systematic errors and precision with random

errors, and defines accuracy as the combination

of both trueness and precision.

5. Resolution

The smallest change in a measured variable to

which an instrument will respond.

6.Types of Errors

The static error of a measuring instrument is the

numerical difference between the true value of a

quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e.

repeated measurement of the same quantity give

different indications.

Static errors are categorized as gross errors or human

errors

systematic errors

Random errors

1. Gross Errors

This error is mainly due to human mistakes in reading or

in using instruments or errors in recording observations.

instruments and computational mistakes . These errors

cannot be treated mathematically. The complete

elimination of gross errors is not possible, but one can

minimize them .Some errors are easily detected while

others may be elusive. One of the basic gross errors that

occur frequently is the improper use of an Instrument the

error can be minimized by taking proper care in reading

and recording the measurement parameter. In general,

indicating instruments change ambient conditions to

some extent when connected into a complete circuit.

2. Systematic Errors

These errors occur due to shortcomings of, the

instrument, such as defective or worn parts, or ageing

or effects of the

These errors are sometimes referred to as bias, and they

influence all

measurements of a quantity alike. A constant uniform

deviation of the operation of an instrument is

known as a systematic error. There are basically three

types of systematic errors

(i) Instrumental

(ii) Environmental

(iii) Observational

(i) Instrumental Errors

Instrumental errors are inherent in measuring instruments,

because of their mechanical structure. For example, in the

D'Arsonval movement friction in the bearings of various

moving

components, irregular

tension

due to improper handling or over loading

of the instrument. Instrumental errors can be avoided by

(a) Selecting a suitable instrument for the particular

measurement applications.

(b) Applying correction factors after determining the amount

of instrumental error.

(c) Calibrating the instrument against a standard.

(ii) Environmental Errors

Environmental errors are due to conditions external to the

measuring device, including conditions in the area

surrounding

the instrument, such as the effects of change in

temperature,

humidity, barometric pressure or of magnetic or electrostatic

fields.

Observational errors are errors introduced by the observer. The

most common error is the parallax error introduced in reading a

meter scale, and the error of estimation when obtaining a

reading from a meter scale.These errors are caused by the habits

of individual observers. For example, an observer may always

introduce an error by consistently holding his head too far to the

left while reading a needle and scale reading.

In general, systematic errors can also be subdivided into static

and dynamic Errors. Static errors are caused by limitations of the

measuring device or the physical laws governing its behavior.

Dynamic errors are caused by the instrument not responding fast

enough to follow the changes in a measured variable.

7. Gaussian Errors

Among the models proposed for the spot rate of

interest,

Gaussian models are probably the most widely

used; they have

the great virtue that many of the prices of bonds

and derivatives

can be easily computed in closed form. One

drawback is that the

spot rate process r, being Gaussian, may

occasionally take

negative values, though it is often claimed that if

the probability

of negative values is small, then there is no need to

worry. It

models will give prices at odds with intuition. But there are

other, more subtle, examples, such as bonds of long maturity.

The discrepancies which arise for these are happening because

the bond price is of the form E exp(X) for some Gaussian

variable X and, although it may be very unlikely that X should be

negative, when it is, we are exponentiating X, and the

contribution to the expectation can be overwhelming. For such

derivatives, the prices which the Gaussian models predict can be

absurd, yet we have no idea what the true price should be. This

is because we have not clearly decided what should be the true

interest rate model (which for convenience we approximate by a

Gaussian). Until we address this, Gaussian models can continue

to spring nasty surprises on us. In this article, we explore the

problem, and suggest possible remedies.

model, the model of Vasicek [8], in which the spot

rate process (rt)t0 solves a stochastic differential

equation driven by a Brownian motion (Wt)t0

(1) where , and are positive constants. 1 Firstly,

lets look at the prices of zero-strike caps and floors;

if the zero-strike floor has a significantly positive

price, this is a sign of trouble. In Table 1, you find the

prices for zero-strike caps/floors for two different

scenarios: in Scenario A, = 0.01, = 0.05, =

0.125 and r0 = 0.02, while in Scenario B, = 0.025,

= 0.10, = 0.125 and r0 = 0.05. The prices are

calculated assuming a sum borrowed of $ 1000.

formula

The root sum squared (RSS) method is a statistical

tolerance analysis method. In many cases the actual

individual part dimensions occur near the center of the

tolerance range with very few parts with actual

dimensions near the tolerance limits. This of course

assumes the parts are mostly centered and within the

tolerance range.

RSS assumes the normal distribution describes the

variation of dimensions. The bell shaped curve is

symmetrical and full described with two parameters,

the mean, , and the standard deviation, .

The variances, not the standard deviations, are additive

and provide an estimate of the

and taking the root sum square of the standard

deviations provides an estimate of the normal

distribution of the tolerance stack. The formula to

combine standard deviations of the stack is

And, n is the number of parts in the stack,

And, sysis the standard deviation of the stack.

The normal distribution has the property that

approximately 68.2% of the values fall within one

standard deviation of the mean. Likewise, 95.4% within

2 standard deviation and 99.7% within 3 standard

deviation.

9.Measuring instruments dc

voltmeters

Voltmeters

A voltmeter is an instrument that measures the

difference in electrical potential between two

points in an electric circuit. An analog voltmeter

moves a pointer across a scale in proportion to

the circuit's voltage; a digital voltmeter provides

a numerical display. Any measurement that can

be converted to voltage can be displayed on a

meter that is properly calibrated; such

measurements includepressure , temperature,

and flow.

voltage, it must be connected in parallel to that

device . This is necessary because objects in

parallel experience the same potential difference.

Movement

An action caused by electromagnetic deflection, using a coil of

wire and a magnetized field. When current passes through the

coil, a needle is deflected.

Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field

proportional to the current is created. This effect is useful for

measuring current and is employed in many practical meters.

Since most of the meters in use have DArsonval movements,

which operate because of the magnetic effect, only this type will

be discussed in detail. The basic dc meter movement is known

as the DArsonval meter movement because it was first

employed by the French scientist, DArsonval, in making

electrical measurement.

This type of meter movement is a current measuring device

which is used in the ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter.

Basically, both the ammeter and the voltmeter are current

measuring instruments, the principal difference being the

While an ohmmeter is also basically a current

measuring instrument, it differs from the

ammeter and voltmeter in that it provides its own

source of power and contains other auxiliary

circuits.

DArsonval Galvanometer :

This instrument is very commonly used in various

methods of resistance measurement and also in

d.c. potentiometer work.

Construction of DArsonval galvanometer:

The construction of DArsonval galvanometer is

shown in figure below. Let us discuss different

parts of DArsonval galvanometer.

1) Moving Coil:

It is the current carrying element. It is either

rectangular or

circular in shape and consists of number of turns of

fine wire.

This coil is suspended so that it is free to turn about

its vertical

axis of symmetry. It is arranged in a uniform, radial,

horizontal

magnetic field in the air gap between pole pieces of

a

permanent magnet and iron core. The iron core is

spherical in

shape if the coil is circular but is cylindrical if the

coil is

rectangular. The iron core is used to provide a flux

less

sensitive, but its moment of inertia is smaller on account of

its

reduced radius and consequently a short periodic time.

2) Damping:

There is a damping torque present owing to production of

eddy currents in the metal former on which the coil is

mounted. Damping is also obtained by connecting a low

resistance across the galvanometer terminals. Damping

torque depends upon the resistance and we can obtain

critical damping by adjusting the value of resistance.

3) Suspension:

The coil is supported by a flat ribbon suspension which also

carries current to the coil. The other current connection in

a sensitive galvanometer is a coiled wire. This is called

the lower suspension and has a negligible torque effect.

This type of

coil hangs

straight and centrally without rubbing the poles or

the soft iron

cylinder. Some portable galvanometers which do

not require

exact leveling have taut suspensions consisting

of straight flat

strips kept under tension for at the both top and at

the

bottom.The upper suspension consists of gold or

copper wire of

nearly 0.012-5 or 0.02-5 mm diameter rolled into

the form of a

ribbon. This is not very strong mechanically; so that

the

galvanometers must he handled carefully without

used for greater compactness.

5) Zero Setting:

A torsion head is provided for adjusting the position

of the coil and also for zero setting.

Meters

AC electromechanical meter movements come in two

basic arrangements: those based on DC movement

designs, and those engineered specifically for AC use.

Permanent-magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter

movements will not work correctly if directly connected

to alternating current, because the direction of needle

movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC.

(Figurebelow) Permanent-magnet meter movements,

like permanent-magnet motors, are devices whose

motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage

(or, you can think of it in terms of the direction of the

current).

AC

voltmeter

12. Ohmmeters

The purpose of an ohmmeter, of course, is to

measure the resistance placed between its leads.

This resistance reading is indicated through a

mechanical meter movement which operates on

electric current. The ohmmeter must then have

an internal source of voltage to create the

necessary current to operate the movement, and

also have appropriate ranging resistors to allow

just the right amount of current through the

movement at any given resistance.

Starting with a simple movement and battery

circuit, lets see how it would function as an

ohmmeter

13. Multimeters

A multimeter measureselectrical propertiessuch asACor DC

voltage, current, and resistance. Rather than have separate

meters, this device combines avoltmeter, anammeter, and

an ohmmeter. Electricians and the general public might use it on

batteries, components, switches, power sources, and motors to

diagnose electrical malfunctions and narrow down their cause.

The two main kinds of a multimeter are analog and digital. A

digital device has an LCD screen that gives a straight forward

decimal read out, while an analog display moves a bar through a

scale of numbers and must be interpreted. Either type will work

over a specific range for each measurement, and users should

select one that's compatible with what he or she meters most,

from low-voltage power sources to high-voltage car batteries.

Multimeters are specified with a

they get the appropriate one.

As a voltmeter, the tool can measure the amount of

AC or DC voltage flowing through a circuit.

Voltage is a difference in potential energy

between the two points. A fan, for example,

should be drawing 120 volts (in the U.S.) from the

plug in the wall, but a computer scanner might

only draw 12 volts from a converter. To test these

components, the user should choose AC or DC,

select an upper limit on the voltage, and plug the

machine in question right into the multimeter,

without breaking the circuit. The readout should

reveal whether the device is functioning normally,

when compared to the data specified in the user's

manual.

which is given inohms. A user can find the

resistance at any point in a circuit by first

unplugging the machine from awall outletor

battery source then putting in an approximate

range he or she expects to contain the number of

ohms. The measuring tool actually passes a small

amount of electricity from its own battery through

the circuit to measure resistance by comparing the

voltage sent out to what it receives.

Responding Voltmeters

True RMS responding voltmeter Complex waveforms

are most accurately measured with a true RMS

responding voltmeter. This instrument produces a

meter indication by sensing waveform heating

power, which is proportional to the square of the

RMS value of the voltage. This heating power can

be measured by feeding an amplified version of

the input waveform to the heater element of a

thermocouple whose output voltage is then

proportional to E2 RMS. One difficulty with this

technique is that the thermocouple is often nonlinear in its behavior. This difficulty is overcome in

some instruments by placing two thermocouples

in the same thermal environment, as shown in

the input circuit (the measuring thermocouple) is

cancelled by similar non-linear effects of the

couple in the feedback circuit (the balancing

thermocouple). The two couple elements form

part of a bridge in the input circuit of a DC

amplifier. The unknown AC input voltage is

amplified and applied to the heating element of

the measuring thermocouple. The application of

heat produces an output voltage that upsets the

balance of the bridge. The unbalance voltage is

amplified by the DC amplifier and fed back to the

heating element of the balancing thermocouple.

Bridge balance will be re-established when the

feedback current delivers sufficient heat to the

balancing thermocouple, so that the voltage

outputs of both couples are the same. At this

point the DC current in the heating element of the

circuit of the DC amplifier. The true RMS value is measured

independently of the waveform of the AC signal, provided that the

peak excursions of the waveform do not exceed the dynamic

range of the AC amplifier.

accurate RMS readings of complex waveform having a crest factor

(ratio of peak value to RMS value) of 10/1. At 10 per cent of fullscale meter deflection, where there is less chance of amplifier

saturation, waveforms with crest factors as high as 100/1 could

be accommodated. Voltages throughout a range of 100 V to 300

V within a frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz may be measured

with most good instruments.

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