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Furnace Exit Temperature

The furnace exit temperature Tf,exit is an


important parameter in pulverised coal-fired
boiler design.

It can have a critical impact on boiler


operation and performance, and therefore
boiler efficiency, availability and operational
cost.

Thefurnaceexittemperaturedetermines:

The ratio of radiative heat transfer in the


combustionchamber/furnacetoconvectiveheat
transfer
in
the
convective
sections
(superheaters, reheaters, economiser and air
heater).
Slaggingofashinthefurnace(particularlyon
thewallsneartheburners)andashfoulingon
theconvectiveheattransfersurfaceareas.

Approximate location of
furnace exit

Image of a 435 MWe tangential-fired PF coalfired boiler

Thedimensionsofthefurnaceandtotal
convectiveheattransfersurfaceareas-these
arefixedoncethefurnaceexittemperaturehas
beenchosenanddeterminethecapitalcostsof
theboiler.

Ash slagging, fouling and deposition

Ashslagginginthefurnaceandashfoulingand
depositionintheconvectivesectionsaremajor
operatingissuesformostPFcoal-firedboilers.

Astheheattransfersurfaces(bothwatertube
wallsandconvectivesurfaces)arecoveredwith
ashduringslaggingandfouling,theoverallheat
transfercoefficientoftheboilerreduces,
thereforetheenergyefficiencysuffers.

Choosinganappropriatefurnaceexit
temperatureinthedesignstagehasan
importantrole.

IfthefurnaceexittemperatureTf,exitistohigh,the
ashleavingthefurnaceandenteringthe
convectivesectionsisinameltingstateso
thereismuchgreaterpotentialofsevere ash
deposition (SAD) intheconvectivesections.

IfTf,exitistoolow,bothfurnaceandtheconvective
heattransferareaswouldhavetomadevery
largeincurringamuchgreatercapitalcost.

Modestashdepositionisroutinelyremovedby
regularsoot-blowingoperationsusinghigh
velocitywaterand/orsteamjets.

Sinceashdepositionisunavoidable(coal
containsash),mostPFcoal-firedboilersare
fittedwithanumberofsoot-blowers/water
cannons,whichoperateonadailybasis-usually
2-3timesaday.

However,inextremecases,SADcanforce
unscheduledoutageofaunit-reducingthe
unitsavailability.

Thecleaningofsevereashdepositsfromthe
furnacewallsandconvectivesurfacescan
sometimesbeanexpensiveprocess.

Deposition on superheater tubes of coal-fired


power plant
Source:http://www.power-technology.com/

Selection of the furnace exist temperature

SelectionofthefurnaceexittemperatureTf,exit
isgovernedbyarangeoffactors.Themain
onesare:

Typeofcoal(andthereforetheash
characteristics)commonlyusingtheash
fusiontemperature.
Burnertypeandarrangement.
Coal-firingrate(whichisinturndetermined
bytheunitcapacityandloadfactor).

Boilermanufacturersdeterminetheashfusion
temperaturebyconductinganASTM
measurement[orequivalent)andassignthe
furnaceexittemperatureatabout50-100oC
belowtheashfusiontemperature.

However,recentresearchhasshownthatthe
ashfusiontemperatureisnotagoodmeasure
ofthetendencyofashslagging,foulingand
deposition.
Duetocomplexmineralogicalreactionsand
chemicaltransformationoftheinorganic
constituentsinthecoalash,coalashcan
becomestickyandcapableofadheringto
heattransfersurfacesattemperatureswell
belowtheashfusiontemperature.
Thisisbecauseintheashfusiontemperature
measurement,thewholeashmatrixmustmelt
forthehemispheretemperaturetobe
observed.However,certainorganicspecies
suchasalkaliandtransitionalmetalcontaining
species,sulphurandphosphorus,intheash
canmeltatmuchlowertemperatures,before
thebulkoftheashmelts.
Itistheselowmeltingspecies(althoughthey
canbesmallinquantity)thatareresponsible
forinitiatingtheashdepositionprocesses.

Continuing investigations into the coal ash


behaviour in USC coal-fired power plants are
an important task in order to understand the
chemical and mineralogical mechanisms
underpinning the ash formation,
transformation and deposition processes.

AlthoughtheUSCpowerplantsrefertothe
conditionsofthesteamcycle,theimpactonthe
fireside,includingflamestability,flamepeak
temperature,radiationheattransfer,ash
behaviourandNOX,SOXandparticulate
emissioncontrolcanbeverysignificant.

Theprinciplechallengeisthedevelopmentof
advancedmaterialsthatcanwithstandthe
higheststeamtemperatureandpressure
conditionsinherentintheUSCpowersystem,in
bothsteamandfiresides.