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ADVANCE FLUID

MECHANICS

COURSE CONTENTS
Objectives

The course will introduce fluid mechanics and


establish its relevance in civil engineering.

Develop the fundamental principles underlying the


subject.

Demonstrate how these are used for the design of


simple hydraulic components.

COURSE CONTENTS
Consists of Lectures

16 Classes presenting the concepts, theory and


application.

Worked examples will also be given to demonstrate


how the theory is applied. You will be asked to do
some calculations - so bring a calculator.

COURSE CONTENTS
Homework

Example sheets: These will be given for each section


of the course. Doing these will greatly improve your
exam mark. They are course work but do not have
credits toward the module.

Lecture notes: Theses should be studied but explain


only the basic outline of the necessary concepts and
ideas.

Books: It is very important do some extra reading in


this subject. To do the examples you will definitely
need a textbook. Any one of those identified below is
adequate and will also be useful for the fluids (and
other) modules in work.

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections/ Topics under Study

Section 1

Fluid Properties

Section 2

Statistics

Section 3

Dynamics

Section 4

Real Fluids

Section 5

Dimension Analysis

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 1: Fluid Properties

Fluids vs. Solids

Viscosity

Newtonian Fluids

Properties of Fluids

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 2: Statistics

Hydrostatic pressure

Manometry / pressure measurement

Hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 3: Dynamics

The continuity equation

The Bernoulli Equation

Applications of the Bernoulli equation

The momentum equation

Application of the momentum equation

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 4: Real Fluids

Boundary layer

Laminar flow in pipes

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 5: Dimension Analysis

Dimensions

Similarity

REFERENCE BOOKS & LITERATURE

Mechanics of Fluids, Massey B S., Van Nostrand


Reinhold.

Fluid Mechanics, Douglas J F, Gasiorek J M, and


Swaffield J A, Longman.

Civil Engineering Hydraulics, Featherstone R E and


Nalluri C, Blackwell Science.

Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering,


Chadwick A, and Morfett J., E & FN Spon - Chapman &
Hall.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID
MECHANICS
Fluid
A Substance that deform continuously when subjected to a shear
stress gas or liquid.

Fluid

Mechanics

Branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and


dynamics of fluids.
The analysis of fluid behavior is based on fundamental laws of
mechanics conservation of mass, momentum, energy & laws
thermodynamics

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID
MECHANICS
Fluid

Properties

Mass
Density = Mass per unit volume

Kg
Kg/m3

Specific Weight = weight per unit volume N/m3


Specific Gravity (Sg)
Specific Volume

No Unit
m3/Kg

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Fluid mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Civil


Engineering either directly or indirectly.

Some examples of direct involvement are those where


we are concerned with manipulating the fluid:

Sea and river (flood) defences;

Water distribution / sewerage (sanitation) networks;

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Hydraulic design of water/sewage treatment works;

Dams;

Irrigation;

Pumps and Turbines;

Water retaining structures.

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

And some examples where the primary object is


construction - yet analysis of the fluid mechanics is
essential:

Flow of air in / around buildings;

Bridge piers in rivers;

Ground-water flow.

SYSTEM OF UNITS

The

SI System of units

will be used.

The SI system consists of six primary units, from which all


quantities may be described. For convenience secondary
units are used in general practice which are made from
combinations of these primary units.

SYSTEM OF UNITS

Primary

units

Quantity

SI Unit

length

metre

mass

kilogram kg

time

second s

temperature

Kelvin

current

ampere A

luminosity

candela

Dimension

L
M
T
K

I
Cd

SYSTEM OF UNITS
Quantity

SI Unit

veiocily

m/s

Derived Units

acceleration
force

Dimension

ms-1

m/s2

LT

ms-2

LT

kg ms -2

M LT-2

kg m2s-

ML2T-2

Nms-1
kg m2s-3

ML2T-3

Nm-2
kg m2s-3

ML-1T-2

kg m-3

ML-3

kg m-2s-2

ML-2T-2

kg m/s

energy (or work)

density

Joule J
Nm,
kg m2/s2
Wall W
Nm/s
kg m2/s3
Pascal
P, N/m2.
kg/m/s2
kg/m3

specific weight

N/m3

power
pressure (or stress)

relative density

a ratio no unils

viscosity

Ns/m2
kg/m s

Nsm-2
kg m-1s-1

N/M

Nm-1
Kgs-2

surface tension

kg /s2

1
NO dimension
ML-1T-1
MT-2

What make fluid mechanics


different
to solid mechanics?
The

nature of a fluid is different to that of a


solid.

In

fluids we deal with continuous streams


of fluid.

In

solids we only consider individual


elements.

Fluid

flow under the action of a force, and


solids dont