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MECHANICS

COURSE CONTENTS
Objectives

## The course will introduce fluid mechanics and

establish its relevance in civil engineering.

subject.

## Demonstrate how these are used for the design of

simple hydraulic components.

COURSE CONTENTS
Consists of Lectures

application.

## Worked examples will also be given to demonstrate

how the theory is applied. You will be asked to do
some calculations - so bring a calculator.

COURSE CONTENTS
Homework

## Example sheets: These will be given for each section

of the course. Doing these will greatly improve your
exam mark. They are course work but do not have
credits toward the module.

## Lecture notes: Theses should be studied but explain

only the basic outline of the necessary concepts and
ideas.

## Books: It is very important do some extra reading in

this subject. To do the examples you will definitely
need a textbook. Any one of those identified below is
adequate and will also be useful for the fluids (and
other) modules in work.

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections/ Topics under Study

Section 1

Fluid Properties

Section 2

Statistics

Section 3

Dynamics

Section 4

Real Fluids

Section 5

Dimension Analysis

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 1: Fluid Properties

## Fluids vs. Solids

Viscosity

Newtonian Fluids

Properties of Fluids

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 2: Statistics

Hydrostatic pressure

## Hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 3: Dynamics

## Application of the momentum equation

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 4: Real Fluids

Boundary layer

## Laminar flow in pipes

COURSE CONTENTS
Sections 5: Dimension Analysis

Dimensions

Similarity

Reinhold.

## Fluid Mechanics, Douglas J F, Gasiorek J M, and

Swaffield J A, Longman.

## Civil Engineering Hydraulics, Featherstone R E and

Nalluri C, Blackwell Science.

## Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering,

Chadwick A, and Morfett J., E & FN Spon - Chapman &
Hall.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID
MECHANICS
Fluid
A Substance that deform continuously when subjected to a shear
stress gas or liquid.

Fluid

Mechanics

## Branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and

dynamics of fluids.
The analysis of fluid behavior is based on fundamental laws of
mechanics conservation of mass, momentum, energy & laws
thermodynamics

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID
MECHANICS
Fluid

Properties

Mass
Density = Mass per unit volume

Kg
Kg/m3

## Specific Weight = weight per unit volume N/m3

Specific Gravity (Sg)
Specific Volume

No Unit
m3/Kg

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

## Fluid mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Civil

Engineering either directly or indirectly.

## Some examples of direct involvement are those where

we are concerned with manipulating the fluid:

## Water distribution / sewerage (sanitation) networks;

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Dams;

Irrigation;

## Water retaining structures.

FLUID MECHANICS IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

## And some examples where the primary object is

construction - yet analysis of the fluid mechanics is
essential:

## Bridge piers in rivers;

Ground-water flow.

SYSTEM OF UNITS

The

SI System of units

will be used.

## The SI system consists of six primary units, from which all

quantities may be described. For convenience secondary
units are used in general practice which are made from
combinations of these primary units.

SYSTEM OF UNITS

Primary

units

Quantity

SI Unit

length

metre

mass

kilogram kg

time

second s

temperature

Kelvin

current

ampere A

luminosity

candela

Dimension

L
M
T
K

I
Cd

SYSTEM OF UNITS
Quantity

SI Unit

veiocily

m/s

Derived Units

acceleration
force

Dimension

ms-1

m/s2

LT

ms-2

LT

kg ms -2

M LT-2

kg m2s-

ML2T-2

Nms-1
kg m2s-3

ML2T-3

Nm-2
kg m2s-3

ML-1T-2

kg m-3

ML-3

kg m-2s-2

ML-2T-2

kg m/s

## energy (or work)

density

Joule J
Nm,
kg m2/s2
Wall W
Nm/s
kg m2/s3
Pascal
P, N/m2.
kg/m/s2
kg/m3

specific weight

N/m3

power
pressure (or stress)

relative density

a ratio no unils

viscosity

Ns/m2
kg/m s

Nsm-2
kg m-1s-1

N/M

Nm-1
Kgs-2

surface tension

kg /s2

1
NO dimension
ML-1T-1
MT-2

## What make fluid mechanics

different
to solid mechanics?
The

solid.

In

of fluid.

In

elements.

Fluid

solids dont