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# Lecture(2): Modes of Mass Transfer

## Modes of Mass Transfer

Mass transfer could occur by the following three ways:
Diffusion is the net transport of substances in a stationary solid or fluid
under a concentration gradient.
Examples:
Distribution of perfume where it is sprayed in one part of a room, yet soon you can
smell it everywhere.
Movement of a drop of food coloring in a glass of water, where eventually the
entire glass will be colored.
Making tea, where molecules from the tea cross the tea bag and spread out into the
cup of water

## Modes of Mass Transfer

Advection is the net transport of substances by the moving fluid.
It cannot therefore happen in solids.
example:
If the wind is blowing toward the east, advection will carry any
pollutants present in the atmosphere toward the east.
Similarly, if a bag of dye is emptied into the center of a river, advection
will carry the resulting spot of dye downstream.

## Modes of Mass Transfer

Convection is the net transport of substances caused
by both advective transport and diffusive transport in
fluids.

Stirring the
water with a
spoon creates
forced
convection.
That helps the
sugar molecules
to transfer to
the bulk water
much faster.

## Mathematical Modeling Of Steady-state

One Dimensional Diffusive Mass Transfer

## Ficks First Law of Diffusion

Flux
The mass (or molar) flux of a given species
is a vector quantity denoting the amount
of the particular species, in either mass or
molar units, that passes per given
increment of time through a unit area
normal to the vector.

CA

JA

## Unit and Scale of Diffusivity

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Diffusion in Gases
Special Case: Equimolar counter-diffusion
in gases A
B

(2
)
(3
)

11

(4
)

(5
)

3
(6
a)
(6
b)
12

7
8

13

14

8
9

10

15

in z-direction

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Example:

Solution:

## JA = 5.63 x 10-6 kmol/m2.s

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1.Diffusion in Gases
General Case: Diffusion Plus Bulk Flow
Diffusion is the net transport of substances in a
stationary solid or fluid under a concentration
Advection is the net transport of substances by the
moving fluid, and so cannot happen in solids. It does
not include transport of substances by simple diffusion.

## JA is the diffusive flux described by Ficks law, and

Let us use NA to denote the net flux which is
diffusion plus advection ( bulk transfer).

1.Diffusion in Gases
General Case: Diffusion Plus Bulk Flow

## t the general law for NA we have to know The relation betwee

s and velocities:
JA (mol/m2.s)
(2.1)
vA,diffusion (m/s) =
CA (mol/m3)
velocity of the net flux of A in B can be given by
vA,net (m/s) =

NA (mol/m2.s)
CA (mol/m3)

(2.2)

vbulk

## (NA + NB) (mol/m2.s)

(m/s) =
(CT) (mol/m3)
Total concentration

(2.3)

vA,net =

vA,diffusion + vbulk

(2.4)

## Multiplying the above by CA, we get

CA vA,net =

(2.5)

CA vA,diffusion + CA vbulk

## ng equations (2.1) to (2.3) in the above, we get

NA = JA + CA (NA + NB)
(2.6)
CT
uting JA from equation (2.6), we get the
General Law of diffusion in terms of concentration :
NA = -DAB dCA
dz
Prof. R. Shanthini
21
Feb 2013

(NA + NB)
+ CA
CT

(2.7)
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## The General law in terms of pressure

g the ideal gas law, let us introduce partial pressure of A (p
ws:
nA
pA
(2.8 a)
CA
=
V
RT
=
nT
P
(2.8 b)
CT =
=
V
RT
Total number of moles

Total pressure

NA = -

DAB
RT

dpA
dz

pA (N + N )
+
A
B
P

(2.9)

CA
xA =
CT

(2.10)

## ing (2.10), equation (2.7) can be written as

NA = -CT DAB dxA
dz

Prof. R. Shanthini
21
Feb 2013

+ xA(NA + NB)

(2.11)

Th
a

nk
Y

OU

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