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Chapter-7

Technology in Modern
Communication Electronic
Communication

7.1

Electronic communication (e-communication) involves


collection, processing, storage and distribution of
information through electronic devices.
Electric communication (e-communication) is the
result of integration of computer software, data
processing, office automation, networked multimedia,
video conferencing, e-mail etc.
Some of the important application areas of e
communication
are:
banking,
health
care,
transportation, marketing, entertainment etc.
Banks, financial and commercial institutions must be
prepared to adopt such technologies to compete with
similar organizations both within and outside the
country.

7.2

Electronic Commerce (E. Commerce)


The latest development of the world of business is
Electronic commerce (or popularly called e. commerce).
Called e.business by many , this is a form of business in
which commercial activities take place through the use of
advanced Information Technology(IT) including special
telecommunication and computer mediation. To speak
precisely e.commerce is done on-line rather than face-to
face. Steps involved in e.commerce are:
Step 1: Establishing a website and then to disseminate
information electronically.
Step-2: Advancing the website to self-service status,
where customers can check their account status.
Step-3: Further advancing the website to allow
transactions including the buying and selling of
merchandise and managing resource supply and product
distribution chains.

7.3

E.commerce is all about business transactions executed


electronically between parties such as companies (businessto-business or B 2 B) companies and consumer (business-toconsumer or B 2 C) and consumers (consumer-to-consumer or
C 2 C)
E.commerce includes activities like electronic banking;
electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail, on-line
internet services, all forms of massaging, multimedia
communication, video conferencing etc.
E. Commerce has brought revolutionary changes in
communication and has made business faster easier and more
efficient.

7.4

Precondition for wide Use of


E.communicartion
Telephone penetration: In order to enlarge access to
e.commerce at the mass level, telephone penetration should be
ensured at a rapid pace.
Connecting through optical fibers: It is essential in order to
replace availability of internet through telephone which results in
recurring telephone bills, slow speed and frequent disconnection.
Cyber laws: Cyber laws to govern transitions on the net is
essential
Combating illiteracy: While illiteracy about e.commerce is a
battle, which will be fought by the players in the market, illiteracy
at the grass root level will have to be takeled on a war footing.
Providing cyber retail networks: Networks of retail outlet of
the net, connected through the VSATS(very small operate
terminal) will provide a viable situation .public browsing points,

7.5

Media of Computer Based Communication


Teleconferencing: In general, most people think of a teleconference as
a group of people interacting with each other by means of audio and
video media with moving or still pictures.
Some of the potential advantages of teleconferencing includes savings in
travel expenses and travel time. Also, make travel plans long in advance.
E.Mail: Under e.mail (electronic mail) system, a communicator types a
message on his/her computer, edits, or rewords it as many times as s/he
likes without wasting any time. After being fully satisfied s/he simply
pushes the appropriate button, the massage is immediately transmitted
to the desired receiver. The receiver can open the mail, read the massage
of the monitor and can respond immediately. The entire process takes
very little time which was unthinkable in the absence of computer
service,
For the operation of e.mail, both the communicator and the communicate
must have the facility of two-computer terminals connected on-networks.

7.6

V. Mail: Voice mail transmits the message in the voice of the


caller, who uses telephone to dial voice-mail service and store
the oral message. Thereafter the stored message is delivered
to the person calling.
Cellular (Mobile) Phone: This is another wonderful addition
to the world of modern communication. Under this system, a
person can carry a telephone set with him/her wherever s/he
goes and can receive and make telephone calls anywhere
within the specific cell in the communication network.
Now a days it is so widly used that we cannot think of passing
a day without cellular phone

7.7

How to get online?


Before you even start thinking about a website, you need to
make sure your organization has the correct equipment to
connect to the internet. Every organization will be at a
different stage of this process. What we have tried to do here
is to give you the basic information you need to get started.
To get connected to the internet you will need:
A computer(e. g. a Mac of PC)
A modem (broadband or dial-up modem, warless
router, local area network, access to the internet),
An account with an Internet Service Provider(ISP)
A browser (software to browse the web, pick up email
and download files).

7.8

How to Plan Your Website?


You have decided your organization needs a website- so where do you go
from here? The most important work is done in planning stage. Spending
time and effort on deciding what you want the website to do, what kind
of features will deliver that and who is going to do it, is well worth the
effort. It is always harder and more costly to rectify problems after the
website has been published.
Here are various technical features which you might want to add to
website.
1. Put someone in charge
Getting a website designed, built and maintained is not a simple task.
It requires good management skills in order to co-ordinate the project,
and considerable understanding of what the organization wants to
achieve and what barriers exist to achieving its aims. Therefore, it
makes sense to find a single person who can lead the entire process.

7.9

2. What should the website do?


Here are a few question we will need to answer:
Why do we need a website?
What do we want the website to do?
What are the features we like about websites?
What are the features we dont like?
Who will the website be aimed at?
What are the needs of the particular audience/s?
Who will design the website?
What is meant by an accessible website?
How much time do we have to maintain it?
Will staff be given extra time and training to work on the site?
How will we encourage ownership of the site within our organization?
How will the success or failure of the website be measured?

7.10

3. Clarify your aims and objectives


To clarify the aims of your website attempt to write a single
paragraph that explains the following:
Who you are?
What the site is for?
What information/services should be found on the site?
Remember, if you dont know what your website is for, dont
expect any of your visitors to know either.
4. Identify your target audience and its needs
Next you need to think about who you expect to use your
website; who is the main audience for your
information/services? Dont work on the assumption that it is
for everybody this is too broad and, if you adopt this
approach, your site is likely to appeal to nobody.
5. Identify required features
When you have identified the target audience and main
purpose of the website, you need to decide what features you
require on the website.
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6. Level of accessibility and usability


Depending on your target group you need to decide on
what level of accessibility your website requires, bearing in
mind the minimum levels required by law.
7. Consistency and integration with other marketing
tools
If your organization has marketing plan, a house style or
templates for communication, you need to consider what
will apply to the website. The marketing plan can give you
help with who it is you want to reach with your website.
8. Domain name
The domain name is the name in the web address. It
makes sense to use the organization's name or
abbreviation for a domain name.
The domain name must be registered.
9. Design
Think about what general message you want to convey
and how people will find the information on the website.
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Pay special attention to how the user will navigate around

10. Gather the content together


Once you know what your site is for, who your target audience is,
and the needs of that audience, you are then in a position to start
gathering information to put on to your website. Always remember
that the information you choose to put on to your website should
directly meet the needs of your audience.
Some content should be on all websites:
contact information,
a map to get to your premises if required,
details about when individual pages were last updated,
accessibility statement,
sitemap,
copyright statement.
11. Organize your content
You should now have the content and a scheme, or a mixture of
schemes, that form the basis of your website. To organize that
content within the scheme, draw out the structure of your website
on paper. Think about what is the most important information for
your intended audience and make sure that it will be easy to find.
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12.
Plan for the future
A website is not finished when it is published, that is only the
beginning and from then on it will develop and grow.
It is valuable to begin to think about the future at the
planning stage and plan in advance for updating the content
and maintaining standards.
13.
Promote ownership of the website
Once your website is online that is just the start of your work
now you want to keep it fresh by updating it regularly with
new material. Assuming most of this new material will be
produced by staff within your organization, you need to
motivate and train staff to contribute to the site.
14.
Adopt the right attitude
Your website should be able to stand alone if possible
provide the full service online.

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