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Visual Arts: Elements

and Principles of
Design
Prepared by:
Miss Gracey
HUMN02G

Topics
Elements of Art
Principles of Design

Elements of Art
the building blocks used by artists to
create a work of art
line, shape, forms, space, color,
texture

Elements of Art
Line
a continuous mark made on some
surface by a moving point
can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal,
curved, zigzag; thick or thin

Elements of Art
Line

Elements of Art: Line


Horizontal Line
Line that runs parallel to the ground
Makes the viewer comfortable, calm,
relaxed, peaceful and quiet

Elements of Art: Line


Vertical Line
Line that moves up and down
Shows dignity, formality and strength

Elements of Art: Line


Diagonal Line
Line that slants
Portrays action and excitement

Elements of Art: Line


Curve Line
Line that changes direction gradually
Expresses movement in a graceful,
flowing manner

Elements of Art: Line


Zigzag Line
Line that is made by combining
diagonal lines that change direction
Creates confusion, suggests action and
excitement

Elements of Art: Line


Quality of Line
Determined by the tool the artist uses
and the motion of the artists hand

Thickness
How dark and heavy it appears
Length, Width, Texture

Elements of Art
Shape
is a closed line
Flat and can express length and width
Can be geometric or organic

Elements of Art: Shape


Geometric Shape
Mathematically determined
Have exact measurement and are not
frequently seen in nature

Elements of Art: Shape


Organic Shape
Free-form
Unpredictable and flowing in
appearance
Usually found in nature

Elements of Art: Shape


Henri Matisse
December 31, 1869November 3, 1954
A French artist who
mixed geometric
shapes with organic
shapes in his art

Elements of Art: Shape


The Open Window
(Matisse, 1905)

Elements of Art: Shape


La Ngresse
(Matisse, 1952-53)

Elements of Art: Shape


The Dessert. Harmony in Red
(Matisse, 1908)

Elements of Art: Shape


Cubism
The art of shapes
Geometric forms in the highly
abstracted works
An art movement created byPablo
Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris
(1907-1914)

Elements of Art
Forms
three-dimensional shapes with length,
width, and depth
can be geometric or organic

Elements of Art: Forms


When drawing representationally,
aim to create the illusion of form.

Elements of Art: Forms


Create the illusion through light

Elements of Art: Forms


Highlight
Area where light is hitting the object
directly

Midtone
The middle value of the local color of the
object

Elements of Art: Forms


Core shadow
Area that is shaded on the object

Cast shadow
Are that is shaded on surrounding
objects and surfaces because of blocked
light

Elements of Art: Forms


Reflected Light
Area on an object that is lighter because
of reflected light off of surrounding
object

Elements of Art
Space
area between and around objects
feeling or illusion of depth

Negative Space
Space around objects

Real Space
Three-dimensional

Elements of Art: Space


Ways to Create Space
Overlapping
Size
Placement on the surface
Detail
Color and value
Linear Perspective

Elements of Art: Space


Overlapping
Objects closer to the viewer prevent the
view of objects behind them

Elements of Art: Space


Size
Smaller objects will appear farther away
from the viewer

Elements of Art: Space


Placement on the surface
Objects placed higher on the surface will
appear farther away

Elements of Art: Space


Detail
Farther objects have less detail than
closer objects

Elements of Art: Space


Color and Value
Farther objects are cooler in color
temperature

Elements of Art: Space


Color and Value
Farther objects are lighter in value

Elements of Art
Linear Perspective
A drawing method that uses lines to
create the illusion of space on flat
surface

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
One Point Perspective
Uses one vanishing point to accomplish
the illusion
Vanishing Point the point placed on
the horizon line where objects begin to
disappear because of distance

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
One Point Perspective

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
One Point Perspective

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
Two Point Perspective
Uses two vanishing points to create the
illusion of space

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
Two Point Perspective

Elements of Art:
Linear Perspective
Two Point Perspective

Elements of Art
Color
Light reflected off of objects
Three main characteristics:
Hue
Value
Intensity

Elements of Art: Color


Hue
The name of the color

White is pure light; black is the


absence of light.
Primary colors are the only true
colors (red, blue, and yellow). All
other colors are mixes of primary
colors.

Elements of Art: Color


Secondary colors are two primary
colors mixed together.
Intermediate colors, or tertiary
colors, are made by mixing a primary
and secondary color together.

Elements of Art: Color


Complementary colors are located
directly across from each other on
the color wheel.
Complementary pairs contrast
because they share no common
colors.

Elements of Art: Color


When complementary colors are
mixed together, they neutralize each
other to make brown.

Elements of Art: Color


Value
Darkness or lightness of a color

Intensity
Brightness or dullness of a color

When neutral colors are added to the


primary color, the value or intensity
is affected.

Elements of Art: Color


Tints are lighter values of color and
are created by adding white to a
color.
Shades are darker values of color
and are created by adding black.
Adding grays to the hue adjusts color
intensity

Elements of Art: Color

Elements of Art: Color

Elements of Art: Color


Cool colors
Colors typically associated with cold
objects

Warm colors
Colors typically associated with hot or
warm objects

Elements of Art
Texture
The surface quality or feel of an object
Smoothness, roughness
Can be natural or artificial

Elements of Art
Texture
The surface quality or feel of an object
Smoothness, roughness
Can be natural or artificial

Elements of Art: Texture


Tactile texture
Actual feel of a texture
Painter Van Gogh uses sand in his
painting

Elements of Art: Texture


Visual texture
Illusion of the surfaces texture
e.g. photographs

Elements of Art: Texture

Elements of Art: Texture

Elements of Art: Texture


How do you create texture?
Using lines
Folding papers
Rubbing on surfaces
Stamping
Scratching or scraping
Collage

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