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RINCIPLES OF TEACHIN

If your plan is for one


year. Plant rice: If your
plan is for ten years.
Plant a tree: but If your
plan is for
eternity.EDUCATE
CHILDREN.

Basic Concepts:
TEACHING a process of stimulating,
directing, guiding and encouraging learning
activity
- the means whereby society trains the young.
LEARNING a psychological activity
development such as the acquisition
symbolic knowledge or motor skill.
- the end of teaching

in
of

PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING - psychological


laws of learning, educational concepts and
rules of practice upon which all educational

PRINCIPLE - derived from the Latin word


PRINCEPS which means the beginning or end of all
things
General laws
Doctrines
Rules of actions
Fundamental truths
General statements
Educational concepts
Accepted tenets
the conditions that affect the teaching and
learning process

TYPES OF TEACHING PRINCIPLES


involves the
nature of the learner his psychological and
1.

STARTING PRINCIPLES

INBORN TENDENCIES
INTELLIGENCE power to understanding
-capacity to know or
comprehend

EMOTION - blends of sensation caused by

the profound and widespread changes within


the body

IMITATION - the tendency of the child to

act according to what he sees or observes

CURIOSITY, INTEREST AND ATTENTION

- Curiosity is the starting point of interest. It

directs attention to new things or objects.

Collecting and Hoarding


(Acquisition and possession) the interest is
in keeping the objects
Competition and rivalry
Competition implies a struggle between
two or more persons of the same object or
purpose with the aim to equal or excel others.
Rivalry often suggests personal contest
for selfish ends , resulting in envy
and
jealousy.

8 Ms of TEACHING
MILIEU - The Learning Environment
MATTER - The Content
METHOD - The teaching strategy
MATERIALS - The Learning Resources
-human or physical object
MEDIA - The System of Communication
MOTIVATION - The Propeller of action
MASTERY - The Be-All and End-All of
Learning
MEASUREMENT - Getting Evidence of

COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE
TEACHING
A. TEACHER the most important part of the

learners educational environment


Roles of the Teacher
Manager
Counselor
Motivator
Leader
Model
Public Relation Specialist
Parent-Surrogate
Facilitator
Instructor

B.LEARNER - the subject of the


schooling process
Pupil - child in the elementary level
Student - one attending an educational
institution above the elementary level.

Types of Learner
. 1. Mastery Learner
2. Understanding Learner
3. Self- Expressive
4. Intuitive Learner

Multiple Intelligences

Word Smart
Number Smart
People Smart
Self Smart
Art Smart
Music smart
Body Smart
Nature Smart

W
O
N

K
U
O
Y
E
O
S
D T HE S ?
R
E
N
R
A
LE

VERBAL / LINGUISTIC LEARNERS


are

SKILLED MANIPULATORS OF LANGUAGE


who can

PLAY WITH WORDS / COMMUNICATE WE

ARE GOOD IN:


READING
WRITING
MEMORIZATION

LEARNS BEST THROUGH


HEARING
SEEING
REPEATING

They will be great poets, writers, statespersons, tutors,


and mediators

SPATIAL LEARNERS
are
VISUALIZERS
and
* ARE PROFICIENT IN RECOGNIZING OBJECTS
* ARE GOOD IN CREATING PICTURES IN MIND
who are
REFERRED TO AS DAY DREAMERS WHO
LIKE TO DRAW, BUILD, CREATE, TINKER OBJECTS
and later

THEY CAN BECOME SUCCESFUL ARTISTS,


ARCHITECTS, NAVIGATORS.

INTERPERSONAL LEARNERS
ARE SOCIALIZERS WHO

* ARE EXTROVERTS
* HAVE MANY FRIENDS
* BELONG TO MANY GROUPS
* TALK EASILY TO PEOPLE
* UNDERSTAND OTH

GOOD LEARNERS WHO


ORGANIZE

WHO WILL BE
SUCCESSFUL IN

MEDIATE

POLITICS

COMMUNICATE

CHURCH

MOTIVATE

EDUCATION

INTERPERSONAL LEARNERS
(continued)

WHO
* ARE MORE INTROSPECTIVE
* PREFER TO WORK ALONE AT THEIR OWN
PACE, THEIR OWN THING, IN THEIR OWN
SPACE
* FOLLOW THEIR OWN INTERESTS
* PURSUE THEIR FEELINGS, DREAMS,
GOALS, AND INTERESTS
AWARE OF THEMSELVES
* KNOW THEIR OWN STRENGTH AND
WEAKNESSES
* FIND CREATIVE WAYS TO COMPENSATE
THEIR SHORTCOMINGS
* KNOW HOW TO ENHANCE THEIR STRENGTH

THE NATURALISTIC LEARNERS


ARE
INTERACTIVE WITH THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
WITH SKILLS IN
ORDERING
CATEGORIZING
CLASSIFYING

CAN HAVE EXCELLENT CAREER IN:


FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, BOTANY

ANDREADINGS AND LEARNING RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL


INTERESTS WILL BE MEANINGFUL TO THEM.

LOGICAL/MATHEMATHICAL LEARNERS
are

INQUISITIVE LEARNERS WHO HAVE THE NEED


TO FIND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
ENJOYS:
EXPLORING PATTERNS
WORKING WITH NUMBERS
EXCEL IN:
MATH
REASONING
LOGIC
PROBLEM SOLVING

LEARN BEST WITH


WORK REQUIRING

CATEGORIZING
CLASSIFYING
ABSTRACT PATTERNS

WILL DO WELL IN MATHEMATICS,


TECHNOLOGY, AND RESEARCH

MUSICAL LEARNERS
are people who normally

* LOVE RYTHYM
* SING OR HUM
* ENJOY LISTENING TO MUSIC
* PLAY INSTRUMENT
* RESPOND WITH THE BODY

ARE GOOD IN THE USE


OF RYTHYM AND
CREATIVE
EXPRESSIONS

and

WILL BE SUCCESFUL
COMPOSERS,
VOCALIST,
MUSICIANS, MUSIC
DIRECTORS

SO THEY NEED MORE CREATIVE WORK AND


CALM ENVIRONMENT

BODY KINESTHETIC LEARNER

ARE CALLED THE MOVERS WHO USE


TOUCHING, MANEUVERING, AND BODY TO
PROCESS INFORMATION

EXCEL IN:
SPORTS
DANCING
ACTING
CRAFTS

LEARN BEST
* WHEN THEY MOVE WITH HIGH
ENERGY
* EXPRESS THEMSELVES AND
SOLVE PROBLEMS THROUGH
THE CONTROL AND MOVEMENT
OF BODIES.

CAN BECOME GOOD ACTORS, AND


BALLERINAS

C. CLASSROOM - the place where formal learning


occurs
Classroom environment encompasses Four Factors
1.Physical Environment includes the location. Size
of the room, construction of the room and the
furniture, instructional supplies, provisions for
lighting and ventilating, sanitation, cleanliness and
orderliness
2. Intellectual Climate patterns of behavior,
interaction pattern and attributes tat help the
learners think clearly, critically and creatively
3. Social Climate
autocratic
laissez-faire
democratic
4. Emotional Climate - emotional adjustment and

D.CURRICULUM
sum total of all learning
content, learning experiences and resources
that are properly selected, organized and
implemented by the school in pursuit of its
mandate as a distinct institution of learning
and human development
Academic Curriculum - formal list of
courses offered by the school
Extra- Curriculum planned but voluntary
activities that are sponsored by a school
Hidden Curriculum unplanned learning
activities that are natural by-product of
school life

E.MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION -

various
resources available to the teachers and learners
which help facilitate instruction and learning

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MATERIALS
1. flat pictures photos
2. graphics- comics, graphs, charts, maps
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MATERIALS
1. Model - globe
2. Realia - objects, specimens, relics, replicas,
exhibits
3. Mock up Computer key board
4. Diorama - aquarium, terrarium
5. Puppets - hand puppet, finger puppet
shadow puppet, marionette

AUDIO-RECORDING
1. Recordings - phonographic disc
2. Radio
PROJECTED MATERIALS
1.
2.
3.

Still Projection
Motion Pictures
Educational Television

F. ADMNISTRATION - organization, direction,


coordination and control of human and
material resources to achieve desired ends

L
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BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL


OBJECTIVES
A. COGNITIVE DOMAIN
( knowledge)

- mental skills

LEVELS:

KNOWLEDGE - remembering the previously


learned materials recall data or information
COMPREHENSION - grasping the meaning of
the material
- understanding the meaning, translation,
interpolation and interpretations of instructions
and problems
APPLICATION
situation

use a concept in a new

ANALYSIS - breaking down material into


parts
separates material or concepts
into
component parts
SYNTHESIS - put parts together to form a
whole, with emphasis
on creating
a new meaning or
structure
EVALUATION make judgment about the
value of ideas or
materials

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN - growth in feelings or emotional


areas (Attitude)
LEVELS:
Receiving awareness, willingness to ear
Responding - active participation on the part of the
learner
Valuing - the worth or value a person attaches to a
particular
object. Phenomenon or behavior
Organization organizes values into priorities by
contrasting
different values, resolving conflicts
between
them and creating a unique value
system

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN - manual or physical


skills
LEVELS:
1. Perception - ability to use sensory cues to
guide
motor activity
2. Set - readiness to act, it includes mental,
physical and emotional sets
3. Guided Response the early stages in
learning a
complex skill that includes
imitation and
trial and error
4. Mechanism- immediate stage in a learning
a
complex skill

5. Complex Overt Response - skillful performance of motor


acts that
involve complex movement patterns
6. Adaptation - skills are well developed and the
individual can
modify movement patterns to fit special
requirements
7. Origination Creating new movement patterns to fit a
particular
situation or specific problem
BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMY
EVALUATION --------------------------------- EVALUATING
SYNTHESIS

---------------------------------

ANALYSIS

---------------------------------

APPLICATION ---------------------------- COMPREHENSION ---------------------- KNOWLEDGE -------------------------------

CREATING
ANALYZING
APPLYING
UNDERSTANDING
REMEMBERING

TEACHING METHODS/
STRATEGIES

STRATEGY OF TEACHING
refers to the
science of developing a plan to attain goal and to
guard
against undesirable results. It means the
art of using
psychological plan in order to
increase
the
probabilities
and
favorable
consequences and to
lessen the chances of
failure
METHOD OF TEACHING - refers to the series of
related and
progressive acts performed by a
teacher and the students to attain the specific
objectives of the lesson
- a plan involving sequence of steps to
achieve a given goal or
objective
TECHNIQUE OF TEACHING refers to the
personalized style of carrying out a particular step
of a given method.

TECHNIQUE OF TEACHING
refers to the personalized style of
carrying out a particular step of a
given method.
- a skill employed by the teacher in
carrying on the procedures or act
of teaching

Individualized Teaching
Methods

A.WRITING JOURNALS A journal is a daily


record, chronology or a register of events. It
is sometimes called a diary.
B.NARRATIVES students are encouraged to
write their own narrative. They are made to
recall past experiences that could help them
understand why things happen or what
events lead to an important discovery.
C.INDEPENDENT STUDY independent study is
a technique resorted to by a teacher in
recognition of individual differences among
students.
D.INVITING SPECIALIST enables the students
to meet, listen or interview a specialist on a
particular topic.

H. PEPARING PROJECTS AND COLLECTIONS it


guarantees constructive and productive
activities related to the unit being undertaken.
It likewise serves as a sure venue for the
application of concepts and principles learned.
I. READING reading as a teaching
methodology requires the students to search
for information from printed and illustrated
learning materials.
J. DISCOVERY discovery is a teaching strategy
which aims to assist the student in finding
solutions or answer to a problem or attaining
a learning objective through self-discovery.
K. INTEREST LEARNING CENTER each center
contains the instructional materials, tools; kits
and equipment that might be needed during

I. PROBLEM SOLVING it consist of a fixed step-by-step


procedure directed towards finding an answer or a
solution to a problem.
Problem solving is also termed a scientific
methodology. The steps followed could be stated
briefly as follows:
a. Defining the problems
b. Formulating a hypothesis or a tentative solution
c. Testing the likely hypothesis using appropriate
methodology
d. Gathering, recording and analyzing data
e. Arriving at a conclusion or generalization
J. CREATIVE WRITING creative writing purposely
incorporates the act of writing as a part of the
instruction process.

Group-Based Teaching
Methods

A. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
- Cooperative learning methodology works well
with groups or teams wherein members help
one another to achieve a desired outcome.
B. DISCUSSION
Discussion,
interchangeably
termed
discoursed, refers to a free communication of
ideas between the teacher and the pupils and
among the pupils as well.
C. FIELD STUDIES
- Field studies as a teaching methodology is an
out-of-the classroom activity intended to
present concepts in the most realistic manner.
D. ROLE-PLAYING
-Role playing of an enactment of a learning
situation through which they depict real life

E. LESSON DEMONSTRATION
- A lesson could be presented through a brief
demonstration performed by a student, teacher or an
invited specialist. It is a teaching strategy that is best
employed when expensive equipment will be used,
chemicals and expensive materials are specified and
technical know-how is needed.
F. PEER TUTORING
- Tutor means to coach, teach or instruct another or
do so among themselves. The tutor is more
knowledgeable, skilled and has the ability to
influence the others.
G. LECTURE
- Delivering a lecture is a teaching mode which
consists of an oral presentation by an expert.
H. TEAM TEACHING

I. SIMULATION GAMES
- A simulation is an imitation of a real process or
concept. A game stands for any contest among
players under some rules for an objective.
J. SOCIODRAMA
- Sociodrama, if used as a teaching method, is an
excellent device to make students gain emphatic
awareness of situations involving conflict.
K. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
- Direct instruction is a way of teaching which helps
students master basic knowledge and skills in a
step-by-step procedure.

Goodluck
and
Godbless