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Chapter Seven

Vapor Power Cycles


Prepared by: Kibrom Gebremedhin, MSc
Lecturer in Thermal and Energy Systems,

Chapter Learning
outcome
At the end of the chapter the student will be
able to:
1. Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working
fluid is alternately vaporized and condensed.
2. Analyze power generation coupled with process
heating called cogeneration.
3. Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor
power cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.
4. Analyze the reheat regenerative vapor power cycles.
5. Analyze power cycles that consist of two separate
2

Chapter Outline
The Carnot Cycle
The Rankine Cycle
Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from
Idealized Ones
The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Types of Feed-Water Heaters
Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles
Cogeneration
Combined GasVapor Power Cycles

Introduction
In this chapter, we consider vapor power cycles in
which the working fluid is alternatively vaporized
and condensed
Steam is the most common working fluid used in
vapor power cycles because of its many desirable
characteristics, such as low cost, availability, and
high enthalpy of vaporization
Steam power plants are commonly referred to as
coal plants, nuclear plants, or natural gas
plants, depending on the type of fuel used to
supply heat to the steam

1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle


Carnot Vapor Cycle
Because the Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle
operating between two specified temperature limits,
it is natural to look at the Carnot cycle first as a
prospective ideal cycle for vapor power plants
It turns out that the Carnot cycle is not a suitable
model for vapor power cycles
Consider a steady-flow Carnot cycle executed within
the saturation dome of a pure substance, as shown
below
The cycle consists of the following four processes
12
23
34

Isothermal reversible heating


in a boiler
Isentropic expansion in a turbine
Isothermal reversible condensation
in a condenser

Impracticalities of the Carnot


Vapor Cycle

1.Limited
maximum
temperature
Limiting the heat transfer
process to two-phase systems,
which makes isothermal heat
transfer
possible,
severely
limits
the
maximum
temperature that can be used
in the cycle (E.g. for water the
critical temperature is 374 oC)
Limiting
the
maximum
temperature in the cycle limits
the thermal efficiency
An attempt to increase the
maximum temperature will
involve heat transfer to the

Cont
2.High moisture Content in
Turbine
The quality of the steam
decreases during the
isentropic expansion in the
turbine (process 23)
The impingement of liquid
droplets on the turbine
blades causes erosion and is
a major source of wear

Cont
3.Compression of liquid-vapor
mixture
The isentropic compression
(process 41) involves the
compression of a liquid-vapor
mixture to a saturated liquid
It is not easy to control the
condensation process so
precisely as to end with the
desired quality at state 4
It is not practical to design a
compressor that will handle
two phases

Cont
Alternative Carnot
Vapor Cycle
Some of these issues can
be eliminated by
executing the Carnot
cycle in a different way,
for example as shown to
the right
This cycle, however,
presents other problems
including,
Isentropic
compression to

2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor


Power Cycles
Many of the impracticalities associated with
the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by
superheating the steam in the boiler and
condensing it completely in the condenser
The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle,
which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants

10

Cont
Rankine Cycle
The Rankine cycle does not involve any internal
irreversibilities and consists of the following four
processes
12 Isentropic compression in a pump
23 Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler
34 Isentropic expansion in a turbine
41 Constant pressure heat rejection in a
condenser

11

Cont
Thermodynamic Analysis
All four components associated with the Rankine
cycle (pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser) are
steady-flow devices
The kinetic and potential energy changes of the
steam are usually small relative to the work and
heat transfer terms and are therefore usually
neglected

qin qout energy


win balance
wout per
hexitunit
hmass
inlet of
The steady-flow
steam reduces to
12

Cont
Pump
The pump work is obtained from the conservation
of mass and energy for steady-flow but neglecting
potential and kinetic energy changes and
assuming the pump is adiabatic
m m and
m reversible.
1

m 1h1 W pump m 2 h2
W pump m (h2 h1 )
Since the pumping process involves an
incompressible liquid, state 2 is in the
compressed liquid region, we use a second
method to find the pump work or the h across
the pump.

Recall the property dh


relation:
= T ds + v dP

13

Cont

the ideal pumping process 1-2 is isentropic, ds = 0.

incompressible liquid assumption allows

v v1 const .
h2 h1 v1 ( P2 P1 )

e pump work is calculated from

wpump, in h2 h1

Where h1

wpump, in v P2 P1

h f @ P1

v v1 v f @ P1
14

Cont
Boiler
To find the heat supplied in the boiler, we apply
the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy
to the boiler. If we neglect the potential and
kinetic energies, and note that no work is done on
the steam in the boiler, then

m 2 m 3 m
m 2 h2 Q in m 3h3
Q in m (h3 h2 )

qin h3 h2
15

Cont
Turbine
The turbine work is obtained from the application of
the conservation of mass and energy for steady flow.
We assume the process is adiabatic and reversible and
neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies.

m 3 m 4 m
m 3h3 W turb m 4 h4

W turb m (h3 h4 )

wturb, out h3 h4
Condenser

qout h4 h1
16

Cont
Thermal Efficiency
The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is
determined from
w

th

net

qin

qout
th 1
qin
The energy
entire
wbalance
q for
qthe
w cycle gives
w
net

in

out

turb, out

pump, in

17

Example 7-1 Simple Ideal Rankine


Cycle

Compute the thermal efficiency of an ideal Rankine


cycle for which steam leaves the boiler as superheated
vapor at 6 MPa, 350oC, and is condensed at 10 kPa.
We use the power system and T-s diagram shown
below.
P2 = P3 = 6 MPa = 6000 kPa
Rankine Vapor Power Cycle
T3 = 350oC
500
P1 = P4 = 10 kPa
6000 kPa
400

3
T [C]

300

200

100

0
0

10 kPa

2
4

1
2

s [kJ/kg-K]

10

12

18

Cont
Pump

he pump work is calculated from


1 ( P2 P1 )
W pump m (h2 h1 ) mv
w pump

Using the steam tables

W pump
m

v1 ( P2 P1 )

kJ
h

191.81
1
f
kg
P1 10 kPa

Sat. liquid
m3
v v f 0.00101
1
kg
w pump v1 ( P2 P1 )
m3
kJ
0.00101 (6000 10) kPa 3
kg
m kPa
kJ
6.05
kg

19

Cont

Now, h2 is found from


h2 wpump h1
kJ
kJ
6.05 191.81
kg
kg
kJ
197.86
kg

Boiler

find the properties at state 3 from the superheated tables a

P3 6000 kPa

o
T3 350 C

kJ
h3 3043.9
kg
kJ
s3 6.3357
kg K
20

Cont

he heat transfer per unit mass is


Q&in
qin
h3 h2
&
m
(3043.9 197.86)
2845.1

kJ
kg

kJ
kg

Turbine

Let us find the properties at state 4 from the steam


tables by noting s4 = s3 = 6.3357 kJ/kg-K and asking
three questions.
kJ
kJ
at P4 10kPa : s f 0.6492

kg K

; sg 8.1488

kg K

is s4 s f ?
is s f s4 sg ?
is sg s4 ?

21

Cont
s4 s f x4 s fg
x4

s4 s f
s fg

6.3357 0.6492

0.758
7.4996

h4 h f x4 h fg
kJ
kJ
0.758(2392.1)
kg
kg
kJ
2005.0
kg
191.81

he turbine work per unit mass is


wturb h3 h4
kJ
(3043.9 2005.0)
kg
kJ
1038.9
kg

22

Cont

he net work done by the cycle is

wnet wturb w pump


kJ
(1038.9 6.05)
kg
kJ
1032.8
kg

The thermal efficiency is

kJ
wnet
kg
th

kJ
qin
2845.1
kg
0.363 or 36.3%
1032.8

23

Example 7-2 The Simple Ideal


Rankine Cycle
Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple
ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa
and 350C and is condensed in the condenser at a
pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency
of this cycle.

24

3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycle from


Idealized Ones
As a result of irreversibilities, actual power
cycles deviate from the ideal Rankine cycle
Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings
are two common sources of irreversibilities
An example of an actual and ideal Rankine cycle is
shown below

25

Cont
Friction
Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler,
the condenser, and the piping between the various
components

Due to friction
1. Steam leaves the
boiler at a lower
pressure
2. Pressure at the
turbine inlet is lower
than that at the boiler
exit
3. Due to these pressure
drops, the water must
be pumped to a

26

Cont
Heat Loss
Heat loss occurs from the steam to the
surroundings as the steam flows through the
various components
To maintain the same work output, more heat
needs to be transferred to the steam in the
boiler to compensate for the heat losses

27

Cont
Irreversibilities in Pump and Turbine
Pumps require greater work input and turbines
produce
a
smaller
work
output
due
to
irreversibilities
These deviations between actual and ideal pumps
and turbines can be accounted for by utilizing
isentropic efficiencies
Pump:

ws h2 s h1
P

wa h2 a h1

Turbine:

wa h3 h4 a
T

ws h3 h4 s
28

4 How can we Increase the Efficiency of the


Rankine Cycle?
Steam power plants are responsible for the
production of most electric power in the world
Even small increases in thermal efficiency can
mean large savings from the fuel requirements
Therefore, every effort is made to improve the
efficiency of the cycle on which steam power
plants operate
The basic idea behind all modifications to
increase the thermal efficiency of a power cycle
is the same:
Increase the average temperature at which
heat is transferred to the working fluid in
the boiler, or decrease the average
temperature at which heat is rejected from
29
the working fluid in the condenser

Cont
Lowering the Condenser Pressure (lowers
Tlow, av)
Steam exits as a saturated mixture in the
condenser at the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure inside the
condenser
Lowering the operating pressure of the
condenser
automatically
lowers
the
temperature of the steam, and therefore the
temperature at which heat is rejected

30

Cont
Superheating the Steam to High
Temperatures
(increases Thigh, av)
The average temperature at which heat is added to
the steam can be increased without increasing the
boiler pressure by superheating the steam to higher
temperatures
The shaded area represents the increase in net work
The overall effect is an increase in thermal
efficiency, since
Thigh, av increases

31

Cont
Increasing the Boiler Pressure (increases
Thigh, av)
Increasing the operating pressure of the boiler
raises the temperature at which the boiling
takes place
The adjustment raises the average temperature
at which heat is added and thus raises the
thermal efficiency of the cycle
At a fixed turbine inlet temperature, the cycle
shifts to the left and the moisture content of
the steam at the turbine exit increases

32

Example 7-3 Deviation of Actual Vapor


Power Cycles from Idealized Ones
Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates
on a simple ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the
turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the
condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Assuming an
isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for both the turbine
and the pump. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with
respect to saturation lines, and determine
a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,
b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and
c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

33

Cont

he quality of the steam at the turbine exit,


From steam tables A-4, A-5 and A-6

From an isentropic pump h2 will be

34

Cont
Isentropic quality and h4s at the turbine exit are,

Therefore, The actual quality at the turbine exit is,

35

Cont
b) Thermal Efficiency of the cycle,
The amount of heat transferred at the boiler, the amount of
heat removed at the condenser and the net work of the
cycle are,

therefore, the thermal efficiency of the cycle,

c) The mass flow rate of the steam ,

36

Example 7-4: Effect of Boiler


Pressure and Temperature on
Efficiency
Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal
Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and
350C and is condensed in the condenser at a
pressure of 10 kPa. Determine
(a) the thermal efficiency of this power plant,
(b) the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to
600C instead of 350C, and
(c) the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is
raised to 15 MPa
while the turbine inlet
temperature is maintained at 600C.
Ans:
a. 33.4%
b. 37.3%
c. 43%

37

5 Ideal Reheat Rankine cycle

Increasing the boiler pressure in the simple Rankine cycle, not


only increases the thermal efficiency, but also increases the
moisture content at the turbine exit. Therefore, The reheat cycle
allows the use of higher boiler pressures and provides a means to
keep the turbine exit moisture at an acceptable level (x > 0.85 to
0.90).

Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive


moisture problem in turbines, and it is commonly
used in modern steam power plants.

The schematic and T-s diagram for


the reheat cycle.

38

Cont
Rankine Cycle with Reheat
Component Process First Law Result
Boiler
Const. P
qin = (h3 - h2) + (h5 - h4)
Turbine
Isentropic wout = (h3 - h4) + (h5 - h6)
Condenser
Const. P
qout = (h6 - h1)
Pump
Isentropic win = (h2 - h1) = v1(P2 - P1)

The thermal efficiency is given by


wnet
th
qin

(h3 - h4 ) + (h5 - h6 ) - (h2 - h1 )

(h3 - h2 ) + (h5 - h4 )
h6 h1
1
(h3 - h2 ) + (h5 - h4 )

39

Cont

net work out wout win w1 2 w3 4 w56


q61 q23
heat input
qin
Rankine

w / reheat

(h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )

h1 h6 h3 h2

40

Example 7-5 The Ideal Reheat


Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat


Rankine cycle. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 15
MPa and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a
pressure of 10 kPa. If the moisture content of the steam at the
exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent,
determine
a) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated
b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the
high-pressure turbine.

41

Cont
a) The reheat pressure is determined from the
requirement that the
entropies at states 5 and 6 be the same:

Therefore, steam should be reheated at a pressure of 4


MPa or lower to prevent a moisture content above 10.4
42
percent.

Cont
b) To determine the thermal efficiency, we need to know
the enthalpies at all other states:

43

Cont
Thus

and

44

Example 7-6
Compare the thermal efficiency and turbine-exit quality
at the condenser pressure for a simple Rankine cycle
and the reheat cycle when the boiler pressure is 4
MPa, the boiler exit temperature is 400oC, and the
condenser pressure is 10 kPa. The reheat takes place
at 0.4 MPa and the steam leaves the reheater at 400oC.
th
xturb exit
No Reheat 35.3%
With Reheat 35.9%

0.8159
0.9664

45

6 Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle


To improve the cycle thermal efficiency, the average
temperature at
which heat is added must be
increased.
we look for ways to raise the temperature of the
liquid leaving the pump (called the feedwater) before
it enters the boiler.
One such possibility is to transfer heat to the
feedwater from the expanding steam in a counter flow
heat exchanger built into the turbine, that is, to use
regeneration. This solution is also impractical
because:
It is difficult to design such a heat exchanger
It would increase the moisture content of the
Instead
practical
steam atathe
final regeneration process in steam
power
plants
accomplished by extracting, or
stages
of theisturbine.
46
bleeding, steam from the turbine at various points.

Cont
This steam from the turbine is sent to a device where
the feedwater is heated by regeneration is called a
regenerator, or a feedwater heater (FWH) to
preheat the condensate before entering the boiler.
This approach increases the average temperature at
which heat is added in the boiler. However, this
reduces the mass of steam expanding in the lowerpressure stages of the turbine, and, thus, the total
Regeneration improves not only the cycle efficiency,
work done by the turbine. The work that is done is
but also provides a convenient means of deaerating
done more efficiently.
the feedwater (removing the air that leaks in at the
condenser) to prevent corrosion in the boiler and it
helps also to control the large volume flow rate of the
steam at the final stages of the turbine (due to the
large specific volumes at low pressures).
47

Cont

The preheating of the condensate is done in a


combination of open and closed heaters. In the
open (or direct-contact) feedwater heater, the
extracted steam and the condensate are physically
mixed. In the closed feedwater heater, the extracted
steam and the condensate are not mixed, thus, the
two streams now can be at different pressures, since
Cycle
with
they do
not an
mix.open feedwater heaters
Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated
liquid at the heater pressure.
The schematic diagram of a steam power plant with one open
feedwater heater (also called single-stage regenerative cycle)
and the T-s diagram of the cycle are shown in the figure below.

48

Cont
Open Feedwater Heater

Figure: The ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with an


open feedwater heater.
49

Cont

le with a closed feedwater heater with pump to bo

ssure
Another type of feedwater heater frequently used in
steam power plants is the closed feedwater heater.
In an ideal closed feedwater heater, the feedwater is
heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam,
which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid
at the extraction pressure.
The schematic diagram of a steam power plant with one closed
feedwater heater and the T-s diagram of the cycle are shown in
the figure below.

50

Cont
Closed Feedwater Heater

Figure: The ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed


feedwater heater.
51

Cont
Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with steam
trap to condenser

52

Analysis of Regenerative Rankine cycle


To find the fraction of mass to be extracted from the
turbine, apply the first law to the feedwater heater
and assume, in the ideal case, that the water leaves
the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid. (In the
case of the ideal closed feedwater heater, the
feedwater leaves the heater at a temperature equal
to the saturation temperature at the extraction
Conservation of mass for the open feedwater
pressure.)
heater:

Let y= m6/m5 be the fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for
the feedwater heater.

m in m out
m 6 m 2 m 3 m 5
m 2 m 5 m 6 m 5 (1 y )
53

Cont
Conservation of energy for the open feedwater
heater:
E in E out
m 6h6 m 2 h2 m 3h3
ym 5h6 (1 y )m 5h2 m 5h3
y

h3 h2
h6 h2

The heat and work interactions of a regenerative


Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be
expressed per unit mass of steam flowing through the
boiler as follows:

54

Cont
Where:

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle


increases as a result of regeneration. This is
because regeneration raises the average
temperature at which heat is transferred to
the steam in the boiler by raising the
temperature of the water before it enters the
boiler
55

Example 7-7 Ideal Regenerative Steam


Power Cycle
An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so
that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa, 500oC, and
exhausts at 10 kPa. A single open feedwater heater is
used and operates at 0.5 MPa. Compute the cycle
thermal efficiency.

56

Cont
The important properties of water for this cycle are
shown
Statesbelow.
with selected properties
Selected saturation

properties

Stat
e

P
kPa

T
C

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P
kPa

Tsat
C

vf
3
/kg
m

hf
kJ/kg

10

10

45.81 0.0010
1

191.8

500

500

151.8 0.0010
3
9

640.1

500

300
0

233.8 0.0012 1008.


5 2
3

300
0

300
0

50 3457.2 7.2359
0

500

2942.6 7.2359

10

2292.7 7.2359

57

Cont

e work for pump 1 is calculated from


w pump 1 v1 ( P2 P1 )
m3
kJ
0.00101 (500 10) kPa 3
kg
m kPa
kJ
0.5
kg

Now, h2 is found from h2 w pump 1 h1


kJ
kJ
1918
.
kg
kg
kJ
192.3
kg
0.5

kJ
h h
kg
y 3 2
0.163
kJ
h6 h2 (2942.6 192.3)
kg
(640.1 192.3)

58

Cont
The fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the
open feedwater heater is obtained from the energy
balance on the open feedwater heater, as shown above.
This means that for each kg of steam entering the
turbine, 0.163 kg is extracted for the feedwater heater.
The work for pump 2 is calculated from
w pump 2 v3 ( P4 P3 )
m3
kJ
0.00109
(3000 500) kPa 3
kg
m kPa
kJ
2.7
kg

Now, h4 is found from the energy balance for pump 2


for a unit of mass flowing through the pump.
59

Cont
Eout Ein
h4 wpump 2 h3
kJ
kJ
640.1
kg
kg
kJ
642.8
kg
2.7

the steady-flow conservation of energy to the isentropic tur


E&in E&out
m&5 h5 W&turb m&6 h6 m&7 h7
W&turb m&5 [h5 yh6 (1 y )h7 ]
W&turb
wturb
h5 yh6 (1 y )h7
&
m5
[3457.2 (0.163)(2942.1) (1 0.163)(2292.7)]
1058.6

kJ
kg

kJ
kg
60

Cont

he net work done by the cycle is


W&net W&turb W&pump 1 W&pump 2
m&5 wnet m&5 wturb m&1w pump 1 m&3 w pump 2
m&5 wnet m&5 wturb m&5 (1 y ) w pump 1 m&5 w pump 2
wnet wturb (1 y ) wpump 1 w pump 2
[1058.6 (1 0.163)(0.5) 2.7]
1055.5

kJ
kg

kJ
kg

the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy to the boi


m 4 m 5
m 4 h4 Q in m 5h5
Q in m 5 (h5 h4 )
Q in
qin
h5 h4
m 5

61

Cont

transfer per unit mass entering the turbine at the high pressure, state
qin h5 h4

kJ
kJ
(3457.2 642.8)
2814.4
kg
kg

The thermal efficiency is

kJ
w
kg
th net
kJ
qin
2814.4
kg
or 37.5%
If these data were used for a0.375
Rankine
cycle with no regeneration,
then th = 35.6 percent. Thus, the one open feedwater heater
operating at 0.5 MPa increased the thermal efficiency by 5.3
percent. However, note that the mass flowing through the lowerpressure turbine stages has been reduced by the amount
extracted for the feedwater and the net work output for the
regenerative cycle is about 10 percent lower than the standard
Rankine cycle based on a unit of mass entering the turbine at 62the
1055.5

Cont
Below is a plot of cycle thermal efficiency versus the
open feedwater heater pressure. The feedwater heater
pressure that makes the cycle thermal efficiency a
maximum is about 400 kPa.
0.376

th vs OFWH Pressure

0.374
0.372

th

0.370
0.368
0.366
0.364
0.362
0.360
0

450

900

1350
Pofwh [kPa]

1800

2250
63

Cont
Below is a plot of cycle net work per unit mass flow at state 5 and
the fraction of mass y extracted for the feedwater heater versus
the open feedwater heater pressure. Clearly the net cycle work
decreases and the fraction of mass extracted increases with
increasing extraction pressure.
wnet and y vs OFWH Pressure
1200

0.25
0.23

1150

0.20
0.18
0.15

1050

0.13

1000

0.10
0.08

950
900
0

wnet kJ /kg

1100

0.05
450

900

1350

Pofwh [kPa]

1800

0.03
2250
64

Example 78

An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so


that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa, 500oC, and
exhausts at 10 kPa. Two closed feedwater heaters are
to be used. Select starting values for the feedwater
heater extraction pressures.
Steam
T [C]

400

300

3000 kPa

233.9 C

815 kPa

200

136.2 kPa

100
45.81
45.85

C
0
0

10 kPa
2

s [kJ/kg-K]

10

12
65

Home
Consider Assignment:
an ideal steam regenerative Rankine cycle with
two feedwater
heaters, one closed
and one open.
Steam
Regenerative
Feedwater
Heater
enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C and exhausts to the
condenser at 10 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at
0.7 MPa for the closed feedwater heater and 0.3 MPa for the
open one. The extracted steam leaves the closed feedwater
heater and is subsequently throttled to the open feedwater
heater. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to
saturation lines, and using only the data presented in the
data tables given below determine
a) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.3
MPa, z=0.1425
b) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.7
MPa, y=0.06213
c) the heat transfer from the condenser per unit mass leaving the
boiler qout=1509 kJ/kg
d) the heat transfer to the boiler per unit mass leaving the boiler
qin=2677 kJ/kg
e) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power
output of 250 MW
= 214.1 kg/s
66

Cont

67

References and Suggested Reading


Yunus
A.
Cengel
and
Michael
A.
Boles,
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 4th
Edition, McGraw Hill, 2002, pp 423-486.
M.J. Moron, and H.N, Shapiro, Fundamentals of
Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th edition, John Wiley &
Sons Ltd, 2006. pp 272-324
R.K.
Rajput,
A
Text
book
of
Engineering
Thermodynamics, 3rd edition, Laximi publications Ltd,
2007. pp 306-340
P.K. Nag, Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd edition,
McGraw Hill, 2005. pp 192-254.
68