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Prepared by: Kibrom Gebremedhin, MSc

Lecturer in Thermal and Energy Systems,

Chapter Learning

outcome

At the end of the chapter the student will be

able to:

1. Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working

fluid is alternately vaporized and condensed.

2. Analyze power generation coupled with process

heating called cogeneration.

3. Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor

power cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.

4. Analyze the reheat regenerative vapor power cycles.

5. Analyze power cycles that consist of two separate

2

Chapter Outline

The Carnot Cycle

The Rankine Cycle

Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from

Idealized Ones

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Types of Feed-Water Heaters

Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles

Cogeneration

Combined GasVapor Power Cycles

Introduction

In this chapter, we consider vapor power cycles in

which the working fluid is alternatively vaporized

and condensed

Steam is the most common working fluid used in

vapor power cycles because of its many desirable

characteristics, such as low cost, availability, and

high enthalpy of vaporization

Steam power plants are commonly referred to as

coal plants, nuclear plants, or natural gas

plants, depending on the type of fuel used to

supply heat to the steam

Carnot Vapor Cycle

Because the Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle

operating between two specified temperature limits,

it is natural to look at the Carnot cycle first as a

prospective ideal cycle for vapor power plants

It turns out that the Carnot cycle is not a suitable

model for vapor power cycles

Consider a steady-flow Carnot cycle executed within

the saturation dome of a pure substance, as shown

below

The cycle consists of the following four processes

12

23

34

in a boiler

Isentropic expansion in a turbine

Isothermal reversible condensation

in a condenser

Vapor Cycle

1.Limited

maximum

temperature

Limiting the heat transfer

process to two-phase systems,

which makes isothermal heat

transfer

possible,

severely

limits

the

maximum

temperature that can be used

in the cycle (E.g. for water the

critical temperature is 374 oC)

Limiting

the

maximum

temperature in the cycle limits

the thermal efficiency

An attempt to increase the

maximum temperature will

involve heat transfer to the

Cont

2.High moisture Content in

Turbine

The quality of the steam

decreases during the

isentropic expansion in the

turbine (process 23)

The impingement of liquid

droplets on the turbine

blades causes erosion and is

a major source of wear

Cont

3.Compression of liquid-vapor

mixture

The isentropic compression

(process 41) involves the

compression of a liquid-vapor

mixture to a saturated liquid

It is not easy to control the

condensation process so

precisely as to end with the

desired quality at state 4

It is not practical to design a

compressor that will handle

two phases

Cont

Alternative Carnot

Vapor Cycle

Some of these issues can

be eliminated by

executing the Carnot

cycle in a different way,

for example as shown to

the right

This cycle, however,

presents other problems

including,

Isentropic

compression to

Power Cycles

Many of the impracticalities associated with

the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by

superheating the steam in the boiler and

condensing it completely in the condenser

The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle,

which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants

10

Cont

Rankine Cycle

The Rankine cycle does not involve any internal

irreversibilities and consists of the following four

processes

12 Isentropic compression in a pump

23 Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler

34 Isentropic expansion in a turbine

41 Constant pressure heat rejection in a

condenser

11

Cont

Thermodynamic Analysis

All four components associated with the Rankine

cycle (pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser) are

steady-flow devices

The kinetic and potential energy changes of the

steam are usually small relative to the work and

heat transfer terms and are therefore usually

neglected

win balance

wout per

hexitunit

hmass

inlet of

The steady-flow

steam reduces to

12

Cont

Pump

The pump work is obtained from the conservation

of mass and energy for steady-flow but neglecting

potential and kinetic energy changes and

assuming the pump is adiabatic

m m and

m reversible.

1

m 1h1 W pump m 2 h2

W pump m (h2 h1 )

Since the pumping process involves an

incompressible liquid, state 2 is in the

compressed liquid region, we use a second

method to find the pump work or the h across

the pump.

relation:

= T ds + v dP

13

Cont

v v1 const .

h2 h1 v1 ( P2 P1 )

wpump, in h2 h1

Where h1

wpump, in v P2 P1

h f @ P1

v v1 v f @ P1

14

Cont

Boiler

To find the heat supplied in the boiler, we apply

the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy

to the boiler. If we neglect the potential and

kinetic energies, and note that no work is done on

the steam in the boiler, then

m 2 m 3 m

m 2 h2 Q in m 3h3

Q in m (h3 h2 )

qin h3 h2

15

Cont

Turbine

The turbine work is obtained from the application of

the conservation of mass and energy for steady flow.

We assume the process is adiabatic and reversible and

neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies.

m 3 m 4 m

m 3h3 W turb m 4 h4

W turb m (h3 h4 )

wturb, out h3 h4

Condenser

qout h4 h1

16

Cont

Thermal Efficiency

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is

determined from

w

th

net

qin

qout

th 1

qin

The energy

entire

wbalance

q for

qthe

w cycle gives

w

net

in

out

turb, out

pump, in

17

Cycle

cycle for which steam leaves the boiler as superheated

vapor at 6 MPa, 350oC, and is condensed at 10 kPa.

We use the power system and T-s diagram shown

below.

P2 = P3 = 6 MPa = 6000 kPa

Rankine Vapor Power Cycle

T3 = 350oC

500

P1 = P4 = 10 kPa

6000 kPa

400

3

T [C]

300

200

100

0

0

10 kPa

2

4

1

2

s [kJ/kg-K]

10

12

18

Cont

Pump

1 ( P2 P1 )

W pump m (h2 h1 ) mv

w pump

W pump

m

v1 ( P2 P1 )

kJ

h

191.81

1

f

kg

P1 10 kPa

Sat. liquid

m3

v v f 0.00101

1

kg

w pump v1 ( P2 P1 )

m3

kJ

0.00101 (6000 10) kPa 3

kg

m kPa

kJ

6.05

kg

19

Cont

h2 wpump h1

kJ

kJ

6.05 191.81

kg

kg

kJ

197.86

kg

Boiler

P3 6000 kPa

o

T3 350 C

kJ

h3 3043.9

kg

kJ

s3 6.3357

kg K

20

Cont

Q&in

qin

h3 h2

&

m

(3043.9 197.86)

2845.1

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

Turbine

tables by noting s4 = s3 = 6.3357 kJ/kg-K and asking

three questions.

kJ

kJ

at P4 10kPa : s f 0.6492

kg K

; sg 8.1488

kg K

is s4 s f ?

is s f s4 sg ?

is sg s4 ?

21

Cont

s4 s f x4 s fg

x4

s4 s f

s fg

6.3357 0.6492

0.758

7.4996

h4 h f x4 h fg

kJ

kJ

0.758(2392.1)

kg

kg

kJ

2005.0

kg

191.81

wturb h3 h4

kJ

(3043.9 2005.0)

kg

kJ

1038.9

kg

22

Cont

kJ

(1038.9 6.05)

kg

kJ

1032.8

kg

kJ

wnet

kg

th

kJ

qin

2845.1

kg

0.363 or 36.3%

1032.8

23

Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple

ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa

and 350C and is condensed in the condenser at a

pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency

of this cycle.

24

Idealized Ones

As a result of irreversibilities, actual power

cycles deviate from the ideal Rankine cycle

Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings

are two common sources of irreversibilities

An example of an actual and ideal Rankine cycle is

shown below

25

Cont

Friction

Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler,

the condenser, and the piping between the various

components

Due to friction

1. Steam leaves the

boiler at a lower

pressure

2. Pressure at the

turbine inlet is lower

than that at the boiler

exit

3. Due to these pressure

drops, the water must

be pumped to a

26

Cont

Heat Loss

Heat loss occurs from the steam to the

surroundings as the steam flows through the

various components

To maintain the same work output, more heat

needs to be transferred to the steam in the

boiler to compensate for the heat losses

27

Cont

Irreversibilities in Pump and Turbine

Pumps require greater work input and turbines

produce

a

smaller

work

output

due

to

irreversibilities

These deviations between actual and ideal pumps

and turbines can be accounted for by utilizing

isentropic efficiencies

Pump:

ws h2 s h1

P

wa h2 a h1

Turbine:

wa h3 h4 a

T

ws h3 h4 s

28

Rankine Cycle?

Steam power plants are responsible for the

production of most electric power in the world

Even small increases in thermal efficiency can

mean large savings from the fuel requirements

Therefore, every effort is made to improve the

efficiency of the cycle on which steam power

plants operate

The basic idea behind all modifications to

increase the thermal efficiency of a power cycle

is the same:

Increase the average temperature at which

heat is transferred to the working fluid in

the boiler, or decrease the average

temperature at which heat is rejected from

29

the working fluid in the condenser

Cont

Lowering the Condenser Pressure (lowers

Tlow, av)

Steam exits as a saturated mixture in the

condenser at the saturation temperature

corresponding to the pressure inside the

condenser

Lowering the operating pressure of the

condenser

automatically

lowers

the

temperature of the steam, and therefore the

temperature at which heat is rejected

30

Cont

Superheating the Steam to High

Temperatures

(increases Thigh, av)

The average temperature at which heat is added to

the steam can be increased without increasing the

boiler pressure by superheating the steam to higher

temperatures

The shaded area represents the increase in net work

The overall effect is an increase in thermal

efficiency, since

Thigh, av increases

31

Cont

Increasing the Boiler Pressure (increases

Thigh, av)

Increasing the operating pressure of the boiler

raises the temperature at which the boiling

takes place

The adjustment raises the average temperature

at which heat is added and thus raises the

thermal efficiency of the cycle

At a fixed turbine inlet temperature, the cycle

shifts to the left and the moisture content of

the steam at the turbine exit increases

32

Power Cycles from Idealized Ones

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates

on a simple ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the

turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the

condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Assuming an

isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for both the turbine

and the pump. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with

respect to saturation lines, and determine

a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,

b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

33

Cont

From steam tables A-4, A-5 and A-6

34

Cont

Isentropic quality and h4s at the turbine exit are,

35

Cont

b) Thermal Efficiency of the cycle,

The amount of heat transferred at the boiler, the amount of

heat removed at the condenser and the net work of the

cycle are,

36

Pressure and Temperature on

Efficiency

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal

Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and

350C and is condensed in the condenser at a

pressure of 10 kPa. Determine

(a) the thermal efficiency of this power plant,

(b) the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to

600C instead of 350C, and

(c) the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is

raised to 15 MPa

while the turbine inlet

temperature is maintained at 600C.

Ans:

a. 33.4%

b. 37.3%

c. 43%

37

only increases the thermal efficiency, but also increases the

moisture content at the turbine exit. Therefore, The reheat cycle

allows the use of higher boiler pressures and provides a means to

keep the turbine exit moisture at an acceptable level (x > 0.85 to

0.90).

moisture problem in turbines, and it is commonly

used in modern steam power plants.

the reheat cycle.

38

Cont

Rankine Cycle with Reheat

Component Process First Law Result

Boiler

Const. P

qin = (h3 - h2) + (h5 - h4)

Turbine

Isentropic wout = (h3 - h4) + (h5 - h6)

Condenser

Const. P

qout = (h6 - h1)

Pump

Isentropic win = (h2 - h1) = v1(P2 - P1)

wnet

th

qin

(h3 - h2 ) + (h5 - h4 )

h6 h1

1

(h3 - h2 ) + (h5 - h4 )

39

Cont

q61 q23

heat input

qin

Rankine

w / reheat

h1 h6 h3 h2

40

Rankine Cycle

Rankine cycle. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 15

MPa and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a

pressure of 10 kPa. If the moisture content of the steam at the

exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent,

determine

a) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated

b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the

high-pressure turbine.

41

Cont

a) The reheat pressure is determined from the

requirement that the

entropies at states 5 and 6 be the same:

MPa or lower to prevent a moisture content above 10.4

42

percent.

Cont

b) To determine the thermal efficiency, we need to know

the enthalpies at all other states:

43

Cont

Thus

and

44

Example 7-6

Compare the thermal efficiency and turbine-exit quality

at the condenser pressure for a simple Rankine cycle

and the reheat cycle when the boiler pressure is 4

MPa, the boiler exit temperature is 400oC, and the

condenser pressure is 10 kPa. The reheat takes place

at 0.4 MPa and the steam leaves the reheater at 400oC.

th

xturb exit

No Reheat 35.3%

With Reheat 35.9%

0.8159

0.9664

45

To improve the cycle thermal efficiency, the average

temperature at

which heat is added must be

increased.

we look for ways to raise the temperature of the

liquid leaving the pump (called the feedwater) before

it enters the boiler.

One such possibility is to transfer heat to the

feedwater from the expanding steam in a counter flow

heat exchanger built into the turbine, that is, to use

regeneration. This solution is also impractical

because:

It is difficult to design such a heat exchanger

It would increase the moisture content of the

Instead

practical

steam atathe

final regeneration process in steam

power

plants

accomplished by extracting, or

stages

of theisturbine.

46

bleeding, steam from the turbine at various points.

Cont

This steam from the turbine is sent to a device where

the feedwater is heated by regeneration is called a

regenerator, or a feedwater heater (FWH) to

preheat the condensate before entering the boiler.

This approach increases the average temperature at

which heat is added in the boiler. However, this

reduces the mass of steam expanding in the lowerpressure stages of the turbine, and, thus, the total

Regeneration improves not only the cycle efficiency,

work done by the turbine. The work that is done is

but also provides a convenient means of deaerating

done more efficiently.

the feedwater (removing the air that leaks in at the

condenser) to prevent corrosion in the boiler and it

helps also to control the large volume flow rate of the

steam at the final stages of the turbine (due to the

large specific volumes at low pressures).

47

Cont

combination of open and closed heaters. In the

open (or direct-contact) feedwater heater, the

extracted steam and the condensate are physically

mixed. In the closed feedwater heater, the extracted

steam and the condensate are not mixed, thus, the

two streams now can be at different pressures, since

Cycle

with

they do

not an

mix.open feedwater heaters

Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated

liquid at the heater pressure.

The schematic diagram of a steam power plant with one open

feedwater heater (also called single-stage regenerative cycle)

and the T-s diagram of the cycle are shown in the figure below.

48

Cont

Open Feedwater Heater

open feedwater heater.

49

Cont

ssure

Another type of feedwater heater frequently used in

steam power plants is the closed feedwater heater.

In an ideal closed feedwater heater, the feedwater is

heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam,

which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid

at the extraction pressure.

The schematic diagram of a steam power plant with one closed

feedwater heater and the T-s diagram of the cycle are shown in

the figure below.

50

Cont

Closed Feedwater Heater

feedwater heater.

51

Cont

Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with steam

trap to condenser

52

To find the fraction of mass to be extracted from the

turbine, apply the first law to the feedwater heater

and assume, in the ideal case, that the water leaves

the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid. (In the

case of the ideal closed feedwater heater, the

feedwater leaves the heater at a temperature equal

to the saturation temperature at the extraction

Conservation of mass for the open feedwater

pressure.)

heater:

Let y= m6/m5 be the fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for

the feedwater heater.

m in m out

m 6 m 2 m 3 m 5

m 2 m 5 m 6 m 5 (1 y )

53

Cont

Conservation of energy for the open feedwater

heater:

E in E out

m 6h6 m 2 h2 m 3h3

ym 5h6 (1 y )m 5h2 m 5h3

y

h3 h2

h6 h2

Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be

expressed per unit mass of steam flowing through the

boiler as follows:

54

Cont

Where:

increases as a result of regeneration. This is

because regeneration raises the average

temperature at which heat is transferred to

the steam in the boiler by raising the

temperature of the water before it enters the

boiler

55

Power Cycle

An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so

that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa, 500oC, and

exhausts at 10 kPa. A single open feedwater heater is

used and operates at 0.5 MPa. Compute the cycle

thermal efficiency.

56

Cont

The important properties of water for this cycle are

shown

Statesbelow.

with selected properties

Selected saturation

properties

Stat

e

P

kPa

T

C

h

kJ/kg

s

kJ/kgK

P

kPa

Tsat

C

vf

3

/kg

m

hf

kJ/kg

10

10

45.81 0.0010

1

191.8

500

500

151.8 0.0010

3

9

640.1

500

300

0

5 2

3

300

0

300

0

50 3457.2 7.2359

0

500

2942.6 7.2359

10

2292.7 7.2359

57

Cont

w pump 1 v1 ( P2 P1 )

m3

kJ

0.00101 (500 10) kPa 3

kg

m kPa

kJ

0.5

kg

kJ

kJ

1918

.

kg

kg

kJ

192.3

kg

0.5

kJ

h h

kg

y 3 2

0.163

kJ

h6 h2 (2942.6 192.3)

kg

(640.1 192.3)

58

Cont

The fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the

open feedwater heater is obtained from the energy

balance on the open feedwater heater, as shown above.

This means that for each kg of steam entering the

turbine, 0.163 kg is extracted for the feedwater heater.

The work for pump 2 is calculated from

w pump 2 v3 ( P4 P3 )

m3

kJ

0.00109

(3000 500) kPa 3

kg

m kPa

kJ

2.7

kg

for a unit of mass flowing through the pump.

59

Cont

Eout Ein

h4 wpump 2 h3

kJ

kJ

640.1

kg

kg

kJ

642.8

kg

2.7

E&in E&out

m&5 h5 W&turb m&6 h6 m&7 h7

W&turb m&5 [h5 yh6 (1 y )h7 ]

W&turb

wturb

h5 yh6 (1 y )h7

&

m5

[3457.2 (0.163)(2942.1) (1 0.163)(2292.7)]

1058.6

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

60

Cont

W&net W&turb W&pump 1 W&pump 2

m&5 wnet m&5 wturb m&1w pump 1 m&3 w pump 2

m&5 wnet m&5 wturb m&5 (1 y ) w pump 1 m&5 w pump 2

wnet wturb (1 y ) wpump 1 w pump 2

[1058.6 (1 0.163)(0.5) 2.7]

1055.5

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

m 4 m 5

m 4 h4 Q in m 5h5

Q in m 5 (h5 h4 )

Q in

qin

h5 h4

m 5

61

Cont

transfer per unit mass entering the turbine at the high pressure, state

qin h5 h4

kJ

kJ

(3457.2 642.8)

2814.4

kg

kg

kJ

w

kg

th net

kJ

qin

2814.4

kg

or 37.5%

If these data were used for a0.375

Rankine

cycle with no regeneration,

then th = 35.6 percent. Thus, the one open feedwater heater

operating at 0.5 MPa increased the thermal efficiency by 5.3

percent. However, note that the mass flowing through the lowerpressure turbine stages has been reduced by the amount

extracted for the feedwater and the net work output for the

regenerative cycle is about 10 percent lower than the standard

Rankine cycle based on a unit of mass entering the turbine at 62the

1055.5

Cont

Below is a plot of cycle thermal efficiency versus the

open feedwater heater pressure. The feedwater heater

pressure that makes the cycle thermal efficiency a

maximum is about 400 kPa.

0.376

th vs OFWH Pressure

0.374

0.372

th

0.370

0.368

0.366

0.364

0.362

0.360

0

450

900

1350

Pofwh [kPa]

1800

2250

63

Cont

Below is a plot of cycle net work per unit mass flow at state 5 and

the fraction of mass y extracted for the feedwater heater versus

the open feedwater heater pressure. Clearly the net cycle work

decreases and the fraction of mass extracted increases with

increasing extraction pressure.

wnet and y vs OFWH Pressure

1200

0.25

0.23

1150

0.20

0.18

0.15

1050

0.13

1000

0.10

0.08

950

900

0

wnet kJ /kg

1100

0.05

450

900

1350

Pofwh [kPa]

1800

0.03

2250

64

Example 78

that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa, 500oC, and

exhausts at 10 kPa. Two closed feedwater heaters are

to be used. Select starting values for the feedwater

heater extraction pressures.

Steam

T [C]

400

300

3000 kPa

233.9 C

815 kPa

200

136.2 kPa

100

45.81

45.85

C

0

0

10 kPa

2

s [kJ/kg-K]

10

12

65

Home

Consider Assignment:

an ideal steam regenerative Rankine cycle with

two feedwater

heaters, one closed

and one open.

Steam

Regenerative

Feedwater

Heater

enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C and exhausts to the

condenser at 10 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at

0.7 MPa for the closed feedwater heater and 0.3 MPa for the

open one. The extracted steam leaves the closed feedwater

heater and is subsequently throttled to the open feedwater

heater. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to

saturation lines, and using only the data presented in the

data tables given below determine

a) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.3

MPa, z=0.1425

b) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.7

MPa, y=0.06213

c) the heat transfer from the condenser per unit mass leaving the

boiler qout=1509 kJ/kg

d) the heat transfer to the boiler per unit mass leaving the boiler

qin=2677 kJ/kg

e) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power

output of 250 MW

= 214.1 kg/s

66

Cont

67

Yunus

A.

Cengel

and

Michael

A.

Boles,

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 4th

Edition, McGraw Hill, 2002, pp 423-486.

M.J. Moron, and H.N, Shapiro, Fundamentals of

Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th edition, John Wiley &

Sons Ltd, 2006. pp 272-324

R.K.

Rajput,

A

Text

book

of

Engineering

Thermodynamics, 3rd edition, Laximi publications Ltd,

2007. pp 306-340

P.K. Nag, Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd edition,

McGraw Hill, 2005. pp 192-254.

68

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