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SHAMS Closed-Loop Tuning Method:

A Fast Approach for PI/PID Controller Tuning in Closed-Loop

Shams
Assistant Professor
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran

mshams@kfupm.edu.sa

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Alternative Approach of Direct PI/PID:

PI/PID-Tuning Based on Closed-Loop Data


Ziegler-Nichols (1942) closed-loop method
Step 1. Closed-loop experiment

Use P-controller with sustained oscillations. Record:


1. Ultimate controller gain (Ku)
2. Period of oscillations (Pu)

Kc=Ku

Step 2. Simple PI rules: Kc=0.45Ku and I=0.83Pu.


Advantages ZN:
. Closed-loop experiment
. Very little information required
. Simple tuning rules
Disadvantages:
. System brought to limit of instability
. Many trials are required to obtain Ku
. Relay test (strm) can avoid this problem but requires the feature of switching to on/offcontrol
. Settings not very good: Aggressive for lag-dominant processes (Tyreus and Luyben) and
quite slow for delay-dominant process (Skogestad).
. Only for processes with phase lag > -180o (does not work on second-order)
ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

This work.

Improved Closed-Loop PID-Tuning Method


Want to develop improved and
simpler alternative to Z-N:
Closed-loop setpoint
response with P-controller
Use P-gain about 50% of Z-N

Identify key parameters


from setpoint response:
Simplest to observe is first
peak!

Idea: Derive correlation between key parameters and proposed PID-settings for corresponding process

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Closed-Loop Setpoint Experiment


Procedure:
Switch to P-only mode and make setpoint change
Adjust controller gain to get overshoot between 10-60 % (about 0.30 (30%) is
preferable)

Record key parameters:


1. Controller gain Kc0
2. Overshoot = (yp-y)/y
3. Time to reach peak (overshoot), tp
4. Steady state change, b = y/ys.

Estimate of y without waiting to settle:


y = 0.45(yp + yu)
ClosedloopstepsetpointresponsewithPonlycontrol.

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Selection of Controller Gain (Kc0)


An overshoot of around 0.3 is recommended,
Achieving the P-controller gain (Kc0) via trial and error
can be time consuming.
Lets assume for the first closed-loop test P-controller
gain of Kc01 is applied and resulting overshoot OS1 is
achieved that is between 0.1 to 0.60 but not around 0.30.

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Selection of Initial Controller Gain (Kc0)


Closed-loop test with P-controller gain of K c01 is applied and lets say resulting overshoot is OS1

Overshootaround0.30(30%)

Kc01=Kc0
Goal achieved!

Overshootnotaround0.30(30%)
Itisbetween0.1to0.60(methodwork)

Recommendedtorepeatthe
experimentwithnewcalculatedKc0.

K c 0 1.19 1.55 OS1 2.159 OS1 1.35 K c 01


2

23Iterationisrequiredtogetovershootaround30%
Kc01=Kc0 Goal achieved!

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Summary of the Proposed Method

PID
controller:
From P-control setpoint experiment record key parameters:
1. Controller gain Kc0
2. Overshoot = (yp-y)/y
3. Time to reach peak (overshoot), tp
4. Steady state change, b = y/ys

Proposed PID settings (including detuning factor F)

2
K c = K c0 A F A= 1.55(overshoot) - 2.159(overshoot) + 1.35

b
I =min 0.645A
t p , 2.44t p F

1-b

D = 0.14t p

Choice of detuning factor F:


F=1. Good tradeoff between fast and robust (c=)
F>1: Smoother control with more robustness
F<1 to speed up the closed-loop response.
ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Selection of Initial Controller Gain (Kc0)


Closed-loop test with P-controller gain of K c01 is applied and lets say resulting overshoot is OS1

Overshootaround0.30(30%)

Kc01=Kc0
Goal achieved!

Overshootnotaround0.30(30%)
Itisbetween0.1to0.60(methodwork)

Recommendedtorepeatthe
experimentwithnewcalculatedKc0.

K c 0 1.61 1.152 OS1 1.607 OS1 1.0 K c 01


2

23Iterationisrequiredtogetovershootaround30%
Kc01=Kc0 Goal achieved!

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Setpoint Overshoot Method

Probably the fastest PI-tuning approach in the world


From P-control setpoint experiment record key parameters:
1. Controller gain Kc0
2. Overshoot = (yp-y)/y
3. Time to reach peak (overshoot), tp

PI
controller:

4. Steady state change, b = y/ys

Proposed PI settings (including detuning factor F)

2
K c = K c0 A F A= 1.152(overshoot) - 1.607(overshoot) + 1.0

b
I =min 0.86A
t p , 2.44t p F

1-b

Choice of detuning factor F:


F=1. Good tradeoff between fast and robust (c=)
F>1: Smoother control with more robustness
F<1 to speed up the closed-loop response.
ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

PI/PID Controller Tuning Rule for Time Delay


Process
Objective: PI/PID tuning formula based upon low order
process model
Simple, unified, robust, and enhanced design method of
the PI/PID controller

Applicable for the FOPDT, SOPDT and Integrating


processes
PI/PID controller in

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Analytical PI/PID Tuning Formula


For stable process
For Integrating process

where =100

c =2, will give Ms=2.0 for lag dominant process and Ms=1.26 for delay dominant
process

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013

Final Comments for PI/PID Open-loop Method


Applicable for several types of processes with time delay

(approximate integrating first order delay process

where =100 (sufficiently big)

ISAAutomationConference2013EMEA(Dammam,SaudiArabia)December1012,2013