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An inclusive peer-to-peer approach to involve EU

CONURBations and wide areas in participating to the


CovenANT of Mayors
"Local energy production:
Solar thermal energy and Photovoltaic solar energy"

Panos Antoniades
Technical Director Stratagem Energy
Ltd
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Solar Energy
Why are we interested in using solar energy?

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Solar Energy
Sunlight provides the energy source that powers the Earths climate and
ecosystem.
Harnessing this energy for hot water and electrical power could provide a renewable, low carbon energy source, and presents an attractive way of mitigating climate change.

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Solar Energy
How can we use solar energy?

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Solar Energy
We can use solar energy to produce Energy as below

Solar Thermal Energy - to provide heat

Photovoltaic Energy - to generate electricity

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Solar Thermal Energy


Solar thermal electric energy generation concentrates the light from the sun to create heat, and that heat is used to run a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity.
The working fluid that is heated by the concentrated sunlight can be a liquid or a gas. Different working fluids include water, oil, salts, air, nitrogen, helium, etc. Different engine types include steam engines, gas turbines, Stirling engines, etc.
All of these engines can be quite efficient, often between 30% and 40%, and are capable of producing 10's to 100's of megawatts of power.

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Photovoltaics (PV) Technology


Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the
photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material.

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Photovoltaics (PV) Technology


In the world of photovoltaic (PV) solar power, there are several types of semiconductor technologies currently in use for PV solar panels. Two, however, have become the most widely adopted:
Crystalline Silicon

Thin Film

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Crystalline silicon
Crystalline silicon panels are constructed by first putting a single slice of silicon through a series of processing steps,creating one solar cell. These cells are then assembled together in multiples to make a solar panel. Crystalline silicon, also called wafer silicon, is the oldest and the most widely used material in
commercial solar panels.
There are two main types of crystalline silicon panels:
Monocrystalline Silicon
Multicrystalline Silicon

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Thin film
Thin film solar panels are made by placing thin layers of semiconductor material onto various surfaces, usually on glass. The term thin film refers to the amount of semiconductor material used. It is applied in a thin film to a surface
structure,such as a sheet of glass. Contrary to popular belief, most thin film panels are not flexible. Overall, thin film solar panels offer the lowest manufacturing costs, and are becoming more prevalent in the industry.
There are three main types of thin film used:

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)

Amorphous Silicon

Copper, Indium, Gallium,Selenide (CIGS)

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Planning a PV project
Building-up a large-scale photovoltaic installation requires several steps and preliminary surveys in order to confirm the reliability of the project. Each
phase is essential and it takes around 6 months to achieve the project.

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Project Overview
PHASES
PHASE 1: PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY
PHASE 2: PV SYSTEM DESIGN
PHASE 3: BUSINESS PLAN
PHASE 4: PERMISSION PLANNING
PHASE 5: SELECTION OF SYSTEM / SUPPLIER
PHASE 6: SYSTEM INSTALLATION
PHASE 7: MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTALLATION
PHASE 8: END-LIFE OF THE INSTALLATION

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PHASE 1: PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY


Thats the first step of the project. When the decision is made to invest in a photovoltaic system, it is required to collect all the useful information in order to identify the interest and the feasibility of the project.

A- Site selection
One of the great advantages of solar photovoltaic is the simplicity of its installation, and a certified installer will do most of the work for you. However, essential criteria are required:
-Orientation: Ideally, the surface should be south facing at a 30-40 angle. Most farm and industrial building roofs are not at this angle, but the mounting system can be adjusted to provide the output needed.

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PHASE 1: PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY


-Location: Avoid shade, although solar systems do not need direct sunlight to generate electricity, they will work much better the more they receive. The South of England is best suited because it is generally sunnier, but most
parts of England have sufficient daylight to make it viable.
-Presence of grid utility to feed the electricity network authority. The production of electricity will be sold to the national grid. Suitable electrical installation must be close the installation and meet local utility
interconnection requirements.
- The photovoltaic system size depends on the project budget, the size of the roof (for roof mounted systems) or the land (for ground mounted systems) and on the type of solar modules used.

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PHASE 1: PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY


B- Collect of information and technical surveys
Before moving forward in the project, two things to do:
- Collect the useful information: geographical position, building or land dimensions, sun irradiation, cadastre, maps, pictures, etc.
- Topographical, building structure and environmental impact surveys

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PHASE 2: PV SYSTEM DESIGN


The photovoltaic installation design is done by an renewable energy consultancy specialized in photovoltaic system design and able to provide the most appropriate system based on the following criteria:
-Sunlight and weather resistant materials for all outdoor equipment.-Array location to minimize shading from foliage, vent pipes, and adjacent structures.-System design in compliance with all applicable
building and electrical codes.-System design with a minimum of electrical losses due to wiring, fuses, switches, and inverters.-System design meets local utility interconnection requirements. -Roof area or
other installation site is capable of handling the desired system size.

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PHASE 2: PV SYSTEM DESIGN


A- Estimating system output
PV systems produce power in proportion to the intensity of sunlight striking the solar array surface. The intensity of light on a surface varies throughout a day, as well as day to day, so the actual output of a solar power system can vary substantial. There are other factors that affect the
output of a solar power system. These factors need to be understood so that the Municipality has realistic expectations of overall system output and economic benefits under variable weather conditions over time.
-Calculate your roof size to determine the maximum size of your PV system
-Analyze the orientation of your roof, incline and shading to determine how much sunlight your system is able to capture and if your system operates near its rated efficiency
-Solar radiation of your geographical region

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PHASE 2: PV SYSTEM DESIGN


B- Select the mounting system
A wide range covering all possible scenarios of photovoltaic installation, from the building integration to the PV plant on ground.

Ground mounting system On roof mounting system

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BIPV

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PHASE 2: PV SYSTEM DESIGN


- Roof mount is often the most convenient and appropriate place to put the PV array is on the roof of the building. The PV array may be mounted above and parallel to the roof surface with a standoff of several inches for cooling purposes. Sometimes, such as with flat roofs, a separate structure with a more optimal tilt angle is
mounted on the roof.
- Ground mounted solution that can be used in almost all kinds of situations, from residential to large commercial, right through to utility scale.
- Building-Integrated PV Array (BIPV) is another type of system allows easy integration of framed photovoltaic modules into the roofs of buildings, old and new, whatever the existing structure. This smart and innovative system has been developed to be a versatile integrated solution.

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PHASE 3: BUSINESS PLAN


A- Feed-in-tariff
At this step of the project, it is valued the profitability according to the electricity production forecast on 25 years running of the PV installation considering the total
investment.
Feed In Tariff rewards solar PV up to 5MW capacity. The FIT is designed to enable a Return on Investment (ROI) of 5-10 per cent each year for well-sited PV installations.

Scale

Generation tariff
2010/11

Export tariff

2011/12

2012/13

Tariff life time

4kW (new building)

36.1

36.1

33

25

4kW (retrofit)

41.3

41.3

37.8

25

4-10kW

36.1

36.1

33

25

10-100kW

31.4

31.4

28.7

25

100kW-5MW

29.3

29.3

26.8

25

Stand-alone system

29.3

29.3

26.8

25

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PHASE 3: BUSINESS PLAN


B- What to consider for solar PV finance:
- Generation Tariff: the price your energy supplier gives you for every unit of electricity produced, irrespective of whether you use it or export it.
- Export Tariff: a minimum of 3p/kWh for all electricity exported to the Grid, this can be more depending on supplier and if you enter into a power purchase agreement. As an interim measure, payment of export tariffs to generators of 30kW or less will be made on the basis of
deemed or estimated exports. The amount of electricity deemed to be exported for solar PV generators will be 50 per cent as a proportion of the metered generation output. (This will not apply if export meters are fitted).
- Lower bills: account for the reduction in your energy bills if you use your own power.

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PHASE 3: BUSINESS PLAN


B- What to consider for solar PV finance:
- Index linked: tariffs are linked to the Retail Price Index for electricity meaning your tariff will keep pace with inflation.
- Tariff digression: the earlier you invest in renewable technologies, the greater the financial benefits. After 2012 the tariffs start to reduce, owing to the projected expansion of the PV market (up to 250MW of new solar capacity by 2011, compared to 22MW in 2009) which is expected to lead to lower technology
costs.
- Capital grants: the scheme generally prohibits recipients of grants from receiving FITs as this would mean they get a double benefit.

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PHASE 4: PERMISSION PLANNING


A- Documentation
-Permission to install is dependent on the view of the local planning authority that will make a decision based on the views of the local planning committee.
-Environmental Impact Assessment: an EIA would be required for an installation.
-Planning permission: A Planning Application will need to be submitted with necessary supporting documents.
-Planning decision: local Authority validates application and requests any missing documents Recommendation to Committee if not delegated and/or recommendation

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PHASE 4: PERMISSION PLANNING


B- Support scheme
Check if installations above X kWp , must be registered on Support structures process before an application is made to an Electricity Supplier.
All suppliers with more than 50k domestic customers must offer FITs, smaller suppliers can volunteer to do so. A list of Licensees can be found on the Ofgem website. A generator can assign their right to FITs payments to a third party (nominated recipient) by way of bilateral
agreement.
C- Grid connection permit
The connection of the solar PV system requires any grid connection point will need to be completed based on regulations

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PHASE 5: SELECTION OF SYSTEM / SUPPLIER


A- Components of a PV system
The main components of a PV system include:
- Solar panels, either mounted on the roof or the ground, or replacing the roof material.
- Inverters, which turns the electricity from the panels into a form you can use for your home or business. Convert DC power into AC power.
- System Monitoring provides feedback to the customer about the power and energy metering. Without proper metering the customer will never know whether the system is operating properly or not.
- Mounting systems, on-roof, grounded or BIPV.
- Cable and connectors, different length and section.

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PHASE 5: SELECTION OF SYSTEM /


SUPPLIER
B- Selection criteria
When choosing a supplier and specifying a PV system, the following criteria help the decision-making process:
- Company profile, reputation and references in similar projects
- Technical advantages and innovative products
- Quality and certification (such as MCS)
- Competitiveness
- Warranty and insurance

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PHASE 6: SYSTEM INSTALLATION


A - Set up the photovoltaic generator
The D-Day has started. After months and months, the installation begins and can go on for days depending of the number of modules to install.
B - Wiring and commissioning

Thats the final steps to the commissioning. All the installation is wired. After a final inspection, the installation will be ready to produce electricity.
C - Grid connection
There will be a detailed procedure for this set out or referred to in the "construction and adoption" agreement which is not standard. There is no "legally set" process for testing and acceptance followed by adoption.

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PHASE 7: MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTALLATION


A - Monitoring system
With the decision for a PV system, you also decide for a long-term source of income. It means that the system must function smoothly at all times. The best way to manage your PV installation and your production of electricity is to use monitoring devices:
Communication hub. It continuously collects all the data from the
inverters on the system side, thereby keeping you informed of the
Systems status at any given time: system monitoring, remote diagnosis, data storage and visualization of the production of electricity.

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PHASE 7: MANAGEMENT OF THE


INSTALLATION
A - Monitoring system
Web portal for professional management. Whether for a small home
system or a large solar park, central administration and monitoring of
several PV plants saves time and money. Plant operators, installers
and inverter manufacturer service technicians have access to key data
at any time, from any location. The yields of all inverters in a plant are
compared fully automatically, permitting detection of even the smallest
deviations.
Large-scale display. A large-format display visualises yield, performance and CO2 reduction of PV systems in large, luminous figures. it derives the display data from the communication hub via the Ethernet interface.

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PHASE 7: MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTALLATION


B - Maintenance
Even if maintenance is minimal, there are no moving parts in the installation, so it is almost maintenance free. However, it is required to regularly inspect the installation:
- Keep modules clean: If the PV installation is located in a dusty place and it doesnt rain frequently, it is recommended to clean the modules (e.g. birds dejection).
- Connectors: check if all the connectors are properly plugged and if no scratch or damage appear on cables.
- Protection devices: check if all the protection devices are in operation.
- Mounting system: check if no damage on the installation racks.
- Electrical measurement on specific parts (inverters).

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PHASE 8: END-LIFE OF THE INSTALLATION


A - More than 25 years of production
Depending on the feed-in-tariff scheme and the right to run the installation, the PV system can still run after 25 years. Indeed, the end of the FIT contract between the installations owner and the grid authority, doesn't mean the modules will stop produce electricity.
The
production of electricity will be use for your own consumption and will allow you to reduce your electricity bills.
B - Decommissioning
In some cases, land or roof are a concession for 25 years, and it will be required to dismount the full PV system. In that case, at the construction of the system, special material are used in order to recycle them after the life-time (e.g. use of ground screws instead of
concrete foundation to avoid ground contamination).

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PHASE 8: END-LIFE OF THE INSTALLATION


C - Recycling
The PV industry is working to create truly sustainable energy solutions that take into consideration the environmental impacts of all stages of the product life cycle, from raw material
sourcing through end-of-life collection and recycling. Although the PV industry is young, leading manufacturers embrace the concept of producer responsibility and have
come together to put in place a voluntary, industry-wide take-back and recycling programme. By addressing future recycling needs now, it can be offered a truly sustainable energy
solution today to help prevent climate change tomorrow.

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
Current Funding
- Photovoltaics are one of the priorities of the current 7th Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013).
- Intelligent Energy - Europe programme managed by the Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI) is the EU's tool for funding action to improve these conditions and move us towards a more energy intelligent Europe.
- European Investment Bank (EIB)
- ELENA

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
What are the selection criteria?
The EIB will select the investment programmes to be supported under ELENA based on the following criteria:
eligibility of an applicant from an IEE participating country: all EU Member States, Norway, Iceland,Liechtenstein and Croatia;
eligibility of the planned investment programme
potential bankability of the project
applicant's financial and technical capacity to implement and complete the project
expected contribution to the objectives of the "20-20-20" initiative in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewables in energy consumption and improving energy efficiency

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
What is the procedure for applying for an ELENA?
There will be no calls for proposals and assistance will be granted on a first-come first-served basis within the limits of the given budget.
To start the discussion to seek assistance from ELENA, the following minimum information should be presented to the EIB in a pre-application stage:
Brief description of the planned investment programme, including type of investments and approach for implementation of the programme;
Expected investment cost and schedule to develop the programme;
Amount, scope and main needs to be addressed by the requested technical assistance.

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
Based on the information provided in the pre-application stage, the EIB will assess whether the proposal meets the selection criteria, and the
need for technical assistance of the specific investment programme. A
positive outcome of this first assessment will allow for a request for assistance to be prepared and submitted to the EIB using the application
form. The Bank will then present the proposal to the European Commission for approval. The selection procedure will take around three months.

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
What is the information to be provided in the Application Form to be submitted to the EIB for approval (following a first confirmation that the proposal seems to meet the selection
criteria)?
If the preliminary review performed by the EIB indicates that the investment is potentially eligible for ELENA,the project team will send an application form to the promoter to be completed with details
related to the project, such as:

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
In relation to the investment programme/project
Statement of candidate's commitment to the objectives of the Facility
Description of the planned investment by sector
Expected overall investment costs by sector
Expected leverage factor
Financing plan for the investment
Implementation timetable for the investment
Description of the major elements of the institutional, organisational and contractual set-up of the investment
Expected results in terms of increase in energy efficiency, decrease in energy consumption,renewable energy production or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

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FUNDING/FINANCING A PV PROJECT
In relation to the ELENA technical support
Total amount requested
Description of the expected support and its scope
Description of the major elements of the support
Detailed cost breakdown of the support
Implementation timetable and disbursement forecast
Information on other subsidies or grants received, if applicable
Description of the main expected impacts of the project development support
Market replication potential for other municipalities or public bodies
Draft of the Terms of Reference for launching the technical support

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THANK YOU
Panos Antoniades
Technical Director Stratagem Energy Ltd

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