You are on page 1of 31

CHAPTER 1

Fundamentals of
Power System Protection
Faults and Abnormal Operating
Conditions

-G Fault due to the flash over


f Insulators string
ABNORMAL OPERATING
CONDITIONS
There are certain operating conditions inherent to the
operation of the Power system which are definitely not
normal, but these are not electrical faults either.

Magnetizing inrush current of a transformer

Starting current of an induction motor

Conditions during power swing

RELAY MUST NOT OPERATE FOR THESE TYPES OF

CONDITIONS
SHUNT FAULTS
L-G (Line to Ground)
L-L (Line to Line)
L-L-G (Line to Line to Ground)
L-L-L (Line to Line to Line/ 3
phase fault)
L-L-L-G (Line to Line to Line to
Ground)
EFFECTS OF SHUNT
FAULTS
Isolated Systems
Power system just consisted of isolated
alternators feeding their own loads

Interconnected Systems
generators in an interconnected system feeding
to one or more loads
ISOLATED SYSTEM
INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM
CLASSIFICATION OF SHUNT
FAULTS
Ground Faults
Those faults, which involve only one of the phase
conductors and ground, are called ground
faults.

Phase Faults
Faults involving two or more phase conductors,
with or without ground are called phase faults.
PHASOR DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGES AND
CURRENTS DURING VARIOUS FAULTS

d Voltage is less than the normal voltage and it lags


PROTECTION SYSTEM

we can consider the relay as a black-box having current and


voltage at its input, and an output, in the form of the closure of a
normally-open contact.
This output of the relay is wired in the trip circuit of the
associated circuit breakers so as to complete this circuit
CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF A
RELAY

Takes input from CT and PT

Compares it with the settings

Generate the tripping signal


CHARACTERISTICS OF
RELAY
Sensitivity
The smaller the fault current it can
detect, the more sensitive it is.

Selectivity
Ideally, the protective system should
isolates the faulty element and, thus
causing minimum disruption to the system
CHARACTERISTICS OF
RELAY
Speed
The longer the fault persists on the system, the
larger is the damage to the system and higher is
the possibility that the system will lose stability.
Reliability and Dependability
In general, it is found that simple systems are
more reliable. Systems which depend upon
locally available information, tend to be more
reliable and dependable than those that depend
upon the information at the remote end.
SYSTEM TRANSDUCERS
Current Transformer

CT output 1-5A
Measurement CT Vs
Protective CT
SYSTEM TRANSDUCERS
Voltage Transformer

e standard secondary voltage on line-to-line basis is 1


CIRCUIT BREAKER
ZONES OF PROTECTION

The adjacent zones overlap,


otherwise there could be
some portion which is left
out and remains
unprotected.

Fault takes place in the


overlapped portion, more
than the minimum number
of circuit breakers will trip,
causing a major dislocation
to the system.
INTERNAL AND
EXTERNAL FAULTS

Faults within the zone are termed internal faults whereas the faults outside the
ne are called external faults. External faults are also known as through fault
eally, a relay looking after the protection of a zone should operate only for intern
ults. It should restrain from operating for external faults. The farthest point from t
elay location, which is still inside the zone, is called the reach point. The distanc
between the relay location and the reach point is termed the reach of the relay.
PRIMARY AND BACK-UP
PROTECTION

mary protection may Fail


to CT/PT failure
to circuit breaker failure
-Up protection have different settings than primary protection
PRIMARY AND BACK-UP
PROTECTION
MALOPERATIONS
MALOPERATIONS

In the diagram, the operating time of relay RB = 0.3


sec, operating time of relay RA = 0.6 sec. The circuit
breaker operating time is 0.5 sec. Investigate whether
there will be any loss of selectivity between the primary
and the backup protection.
VARIOUS PRINCIPLES OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
The most visible effect of fault is a sudden
build-up of current
OVER-CURRENT RELAYING is the most natural principle of
relaying
Fault current magnitude is a function of type of fault and
the source impedance
Source impedance, which depends upon the number of
generating units
Therefore, the reach as well as the operating time of over-
current relaying keep changing from fault to fault, and
time to time
VARIOUS PRINCIPLES OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
DIFFERENTAL PROTECTION is used due
the problems faced in the over current
relaying scheme
The current entering a protected section must
be equal to that leaving it
Discrepancy between the two indicates the
presence of a fault
It is impractical to apply this principle to a
transmission line because the ends are far
apart and it is not easy to compare information
at the two ends.
VARIOUS PRINCIPLES OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
DISTANCE RELAY
Compares voltage with current at the same end

This, in effect, measures the impedance


between the relay location and the fault point
impedance of a transmission line can be
considered to be directly proportional to the
distance along the line
VARIOUS PRINCIPLES OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTION
DIRECTIONAL RELAYS
Double-end feed system, or parallel lines,
or a ring main system, a fault gets fed
from both sides
In order to be selective, the relay must be
sensitive to the direction of fault power
flow
PROTECTION SYSTEM

Vs = 1 p.u
Xs = 0.5 p.u Max current passing through rela
ZL = 1.2 p.u
CT ratio = 1000/5
PROTECTION SYSTEM

Vs = 1 p.u
Xs = 0.5 p.u Max current passing through rela
ZL = 1.2 p.u
CT ratio = 1000/5