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ZIGBEE

THE FUTURE OF
DATA COMMUNICATION
The ZigBee Name
Named for erratic, zig-zagging patterns of bees
between flowers
Symbolizes communication between nodes in a mesh
network
Network components analogous to queen bee, drones,
worker bees
Why ZigBee is needed?
No wireless network standard that meets the
unique needs of sensors and control devices.
wireless systems dont require high data
rates but do require low cost and very low
current drain.
proprietary systems are creating significant
interoperability problems with each other and
with newer technologies.
What is ZigBee ?
ZigBee is a Ad-hoc networking technology for
LR-WPAN.
Based On IEEE 802.15.4 standard that defines
the PHY and Mac Layers for ZigBee.
Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption
as compared to competing technologies.
Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40
Kbps 915Mhz and 20Kbps for 868Mhz band.
ZIGBEE

ZigBee is a technological standard designed for control and


sensor networks.

Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard for WPAN.

Created by the ZigBee Alliance.


ZIGBEE ALLIANCE

and many more....


What Does ZigBee Do?

Designed for wireless controls and sensors


Operates in Personal Area Networks (PANs)
and device-to-device networks
Connectivity between small packet devices
Control of lights, switches, thermostats,
appliances, etc.
CHARACTERISTICS
Low Cost
Low Power Consumption
Low Data Rate
High Transmission Range
Scalability
Reliability
High Security
Mesh Networking
TOPOLOGIES
ARCHITECTURE

Zigbee Alliance:
oThe Software
oNetwork, Security
& Application
Layers
oBrand Management

IEEE 802.15.4:
oThe Hardware
oPhysical & MAC
Layers
IEEE 802.15.4 & ZigBee

Application Custom
er
API the software
Security Network, Security &
32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption ZigBe
Application layers
e
Network Allianc Brand management
Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree e
IEEE 802.15.4
MAC
IEEE the hardware
PHY 802.1
Physical & Media
868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz
5.4
Access Control layers
Silico Stac Ap
n k p
PHY LAYER TASKS

Activation and deactivation Transmitting


of the radio transceiver Receiving
Sleeping

Receiver Energy Estimating received signal power


Detection

Quality of a received signal


Link Quality Indication Tune its transceiver in to specific channel

Energy Detection mode


Clear Channel Assessment Carrier Sense mode
Carrier Sense with Energy Detection mode

Tune its transceiver in to specific channel


Channel Frequency
Selection
ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION OF THE RADIO TRANSCEIVER. The radio transceiver
can operate in three different states: transmitting, receiving, or sleeping. The radio is
turned ON or OFF upon request of the MAC sub-layer.

RECEIVER ENERGY DETECTION (ED). Estimation of the received signal power within the
bandwidth of an IEEE 802.15.4 channel. Typical usage is determination whether the
channel is busy or idle in the Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) procedure or by the
Channel Selection Algorithm of the Network Layer.

LINK QUALITY INDICATION (LQI). A measurement characterizing the strength/quality of


a received signal on a link.

CLEAR CHANNEL ASSESSMENT (CCA). This operation is responsible for reporting the
medium activity state: busy or idle. CCA can be performed in three different
operational modes:
Energy Detection mode. If the received energy is higher than a given threshold,
referred to as ED threshold, the CCA reports that the medium is busy.
Carrier Sense mode. Only if CCA detects a signal with the modulation and the
spreading characteristics of IEEE 802.15.4 and which may be higher or lower than
the ED threshold, the medium is reported busy.
Carrier Sense with Energy Detection mode. A combination of the above mentioned
methods.

CHANNEL FREQUENCY SELECTION. IEEE 802.15.4 defines 27 different wireless channels


and a network can choose to operate within a given channel set. The task of the PHY
Zigbee Device Types

There are three different ZigBee


device types that operate on the
layers in any self-organizing
application network

1. Zigbee Coordinator node


2. Full Function Device (FFD)
3. Reduced Function Device(RFD)
1.Zigbee Coordinator
Node
It is the root of network tree and a bridge
to other network
Able to store information about the
network
Only one ZCN for a network
It act as a repositary for other security
keys
2.The full Function
Device
An intermediatory router transmitting data from
other devices
Needs lesser memory than Zigbee coordinator
node
Lesser manufacturing cost
Can operate on all topologies
Also act as a coordinator
3.The Reduced Function
Device
Device capable of talking in the network
It cannot relay data from other devices
Less memory
Cheaper than FFD
It talks only to the n/w coordinator
Network Topologies
1.Star Topology
Network
Topologies(cont)
2. Peer-to-Peer Topology
ARCHITECTURE
PHYSICAL LAYER
PHY functionalities:
Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver
Energy Detection (ED) within the current channel
Link Quality Indication (LQI) for received packets
Clear Channel Assessment for CSMA-CA
Channel frequency selection
Data transmission and reception
OPERATING FREQUENCIES
ISM ( INDUSTRIAL SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL)
868 MHz European Band at 20kbps
915 MHz North American Band at 40kbps
2.4 GHz Global Band at 250kbps

Center Frequency No. of Channel Bit Rate


Frequenc Band channels (k) (kb/s)
y(MHz) (MHz)

868 868-868.8 1 0 20

915 902-928 10 1-10 40

2450 2400-2483.5 16 11-26 250


MAC LAYER

Device Classes
Full function device (FFD)
Can talk to any device.

Reduced function device (RFD)


Cannot talk to all the devices.

Address
All devices must have 64 bit IEEE
addresses
Short (16 bit) addresses can be
allocated to reduce packet size
DEVICES
Zigbee Coordinator (ZC):

it is the root of the network tree


acts as a bridge to other networks.

Zigbee Router (ZR):

acts as an intermediate router.

Zigbee End Devices (ZED):

functionality to talk to the parent node.


cannot relay data from other devices
allows the node to be asleep .
EXAMPLE
MAC LAYER
Transmission Mode

Beacon enable mode


Periodic data
Repetitive low latency data using.

Non-Beacon enable mode


Intermittent data using.
APPLICATION SUPPORT (APS)
APPLICATION FRAMEWORK
ZIGBEE DEVICE OBJECT (ZBO)
MESH NETWORKING
MESH NETWORKING
MESH NETWORKING
MESH NETWORKING
MESH NETWORKING
ZigBees Future
ZigBee is poised to become the global control/sensor
network standard. It has been designed to provide the
following features:
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS NETWORK TYPES

a)WPAN
b)WLAN
c)WWAN
APPLICATIONS

INDUSTRIAL
& CONSUMER
COMMERCIAL ELECTRONICS

ZigBee
LOW DATA-RATE
PERSONAL
RADIO DEVICES PC &
HEALTH CARE PERIPHERALS

HOME
TOYS & AUTOMATION
GAMES
ZIGBEE AND BLUETOOTH
Feature(s) Bluetooth ZigBee
Power Profile days years
Complexity complex Simple
Nodes/Master 7 64000
Latency 10 seconds 30 ms 1s
Range 10m 70m ~ 300m
Extendibility No Yes
Data Rate 1 Mbps 250 Kbps
Security 64bit, 128bit 128bit AES and
Application Layer
802 WIRELESS SPACE

WWAN IEEE 802.22

IEEE 802.20
WMAN
WiMax
IEEE 802.16

WLAN WiFi
ZigBee 802.11
802.15.4 Bluetooth
802.15.3
WPAN 802.15.3a
802.15.1 802.15.3c

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000


Data Rate (Mbps)
THANK YOU