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Field Effect

Transistors

IBM/Motorola Power PC620

Motorola MC68020

IBM Power PC 601 EE314


1.Construction of MOS
2.NMOS and PMOS
3.Types of MOS
4.MOSFET Basic Operation
5.Characteristics

Chapter 12: Field


Effect Transistors
The MOS Transistor

Polysilicon Aluminum

JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor


MOSFET - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
n-channel MOSFET (nMOS) & p-channel MOSFET (pMOS)
The MOS Transistor

Gate Oxide
Gate
Polysilicon Field-Oxide
Source Drain
(SiO2)
n+ n+

p+ stopper
p-substrate

Bulk Contact

CROSS-SECTION of NMOS Transistor


Switch Model of NMOS Transistor

| VGS | Gate

Source Drain
(of carriers) (of
carriers)

Open (off) (Gate = 0) Closed (on) (Gate = 1)


Ron

| VGS | < | VT | | VGS | > | VT |


Switch Model of PMOS Transistor

| VGS | Gate

Source Drain
(of carriers) (of carriers)

Open (off) (Gate = 1) Closed (on) (Gate = 0)


Ron

| VGS | > | VDD | VT | | | VGS | < | VDD |VT| |


MOS transistors Symbols
D D

G G

S S
Channe
NMOS Enhancement NMOS Depletion l
D D

G G B

S S

PMOS Enhancement NMOS with


Bulk Contact
JFET and MOSFET Transistorsor

Symbol

L = 0.5-10 m
W = 0.5-500 m

SiO2 Thickness = 0.02-0.1 m

Device characteristics depend on L,W, Thickness, doping levels


MOSFET Transistor Fabrication Steps
Building A MOSFET Transistor Using Silicon

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/transistor/index.html
It is done. Now, how does it
work?
n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation
Operation in the Cutoff region

pn junction:
reverse bias

iD=0
for vGS<Vt0

Schematic

When vGS=0 then iD=0 until vGS>Vt0 (Vt0 threshold voltage)


n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation
Operation in the Triode Region

For vDS<vGS-Vt0 and vGS>Vt0 the NMOS is operating in the triode region

Resistor like characteristic


(R between S & D,
Used as voltage controlled R)

For small vDS, iD is proportional


to the excess voltage vGS-Vt0
n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation
Operation in the Triode Region


i D K 2 v GS Vt 0 v DS v DS
2

W KP
K
L 2
Device parameter KP for
NMOSFET is 50 A/V2
n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation
Operation in the Saturation Region (vDS is increased)

Tapering
of the
channel
- increments
of iD are
smaller
when
vDS is
larger When vGD=Vt0 then the channel
thickness is 0 and

i D K v GS Vt 0
2
n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation

Example 12.1

An nMOS has W=160 m, L=2 m, KP= 50 A/V2 and Vto=2 V.

Plot the drain current characteristic vs drain to source voltage


for vGS=3 V.

i D K 2 v GS Vt 0 v DS v DS
2

W KP
i D K v GS Vt 0 K
2

L 2
n-channel MOSFET Basic Operation

Example 12.1
Characteristic

Channel length i D Kv DS
2

modulation
id depends on vDS in
saturation region
(approx: iD =const in
saturation region)
p-channel MOSFET Basic Operation
It is constructed by interchanging the n and p regions of n-
channel MOSFET.

Symbol
Characteristic

How does p-channel


MOSFET operate?
-voltage polarities
-iD current
-schematic