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# Data Transmission

1
Outline
Introduction
Transmission methods
Simplex, half duplex and full duplex
transmission
Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth
Noise
Data rate
References
Tutorial
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Introduction
Data transmission occurs between transmitter
and receiver over some transmission medium.
Transmission media may be classified as guided
or unguided.
With guided media, the waves are guided
along a physical path; examples of guided media
are twisted pair, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.
Unguided media, also called wireless, provide a
means for transmitting electromagnetic waves
but do not guide them
In both cases, communication is in the form of
electromagnetic waves.

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Transmission methods
no intermediate devices
point-to-point
multi-point
more than two devices share the link

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Simplex, half duplex and full
duplex Transmission
simplex
one direction
eg. television
half duplex
either direction, but only one way at a time
full duplex
both directions at the same time
eg. telephone

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Digital Data transmission
System

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Frequency
Frequency is defined as number of
cycles per second.
Each cycle forms a period. Thus :
1
f Hz.........................(1)
T

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Spectrum
The spectrum of a signal is the range
of frequencies that it contains.
Vs1

1
t
Vs2

1 2 t

Vs3

1 2 3 4 t

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Spectrum
The range of frequencies can be
calculated from:
1
f Hz
T

Where :
T is the period for each
signal

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Spectrum
Thus:

1 1
f1 0.5Hz
T1 2
1 1
f2 1Hz
T2 1
1 1
f3 2 Hz
T3 0.5
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Bandwidth
The absolute bandwidth of a signal
is the width of the spectrum.
Thus:
B f 3 f1 2 0.5 1.5Hz

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Noise
Define as an unwanted signals within
the wanted signal

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Noise categories
Noise may be divided into four
categories:
Thermal noise
Intermodulation noise
Crosstalk
Impulse noise

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Crosstalk
Crosstalk it is an unwanted coupling
between signal paths.
It can occur by electrical coupling
between nearby twisted pairs
experienced by anyone who, while
using the telephone, has been able
to hear another conversation.

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Impulse noise
Non-continuous noise consisting of
irregular pulses or noise spikes of short
duration and of relatively high amplitude.
It is generated from a variety of causes:
external electromagnetic disturbances, such as
lightning
faults and flaws in the communications
system.
Impulse noise is generally only a minor
annoyance for analog data.
However, impulse noise is the primary
source of error in digital data
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Intermodulation Noise
Noise due to signals of different
frequencies sharing the same
transmission medium,
The effect of intermodulation noise is to
produce signals at a frequency that is
the sum or difference of the two original
This derived signal could interfere with
an intended signal at the frequency

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Thermal noise
Thermal noise is due to thermal
agitation of electrons.
It is present in:
all electronic devices and
transmission media
It is a function of temperature.

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Thermal noise
Thermal noise power:

Pn kTB..............( 2)
Where:
PT is the noise power in watts
is the bandwidth in Hz
B
is the temperature in kelvins
T is Boltzmanns constant
23
k 1.38 10
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Thermal noise
Thermal noise voltage is therefore:
2
V
Pn n

R
Show derivation of equation (3)

Vn 4kTBR ......................(3)

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Data rate
The rate, in bits per second (bps), at
which data can be communicated.
Also called channel capacity
Data rate can be computed taking
into account the channel noise
condition.

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Data rate for noise free
channel
For noise free channel condition, data
rate can be computed using Nyquist
formula:
C 2 B log 2 M ................( 4)

Where:M
is the voltage levels or
number of discrete signal
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Data rate for noise channel
For noise channel condition, data
rate can be computed using shannon
formula:
C B log 2 1 SNR .....................(5)

Where: PS
SNR 10 log 10 .......................(6)
Pn

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Reference
[1] William Stallings, 2010, Data and
Computer Communications, 9th Edition,
Pearson, ISBN-10:0132172178 or ISBN-
13:978-0132172172.
[2] Michael P. Fitz, 2007, "Fundamentals of
Communication Systems, 1st Edition,
McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN-10:
0071482806or ISBN-13:978- 0071482806.
[3] John G. Proakis andMasoud Salehi, 2013,
Fundamentals of Communication Systems,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, ISBN-
10:0133354857or ISBN-13:978-
0133354850
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Tutorial
Question one
a) State the difference between frequency
spectrum and frequency bandwidth.
b) A noise free channel has a bandwidth of
4kHz.
i. If the voltage levels are 6, calculate the channel
capacity.
ii. Suppose the channel capacity and bandwidth
remains the same but the channel experiences
some noise. Calculate the signal to noise ratio in
decibels

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Tutorial
Question two
a) briefly explain four categories of noise

## b)Given a receiver with an effective noise

temperature of 294 K and a 10-MHz
bandwidth. If the effective resistance of
the receiver is 100 ohms, calculate:
i. The noise power
ii. The noise voltage

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