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# Flows With More Than One Dependent

Variable - 2D Example

Juan M. Lopez
BIEN 501
Wednesday, March 21, 2007

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Recall - Generalized Newtonian
T pI 2 D where 2tr D D

Recall that: D
1
2
v v
T

tr stands for trace, which is
the sum of the diagonal
elements. Tr(T)=Tii

## While the expression looks complicated, it will look

much simpler once a given form for is found.

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Generalized Newtonian
T pI 2 D where 2tr D D

Recall that: D
1
2
v v
T

tr stands for trace, which is
the sum of the diagonal
elements. Tr(T)=Tii

ui u2 u1 u3 u1
2
1 0 0 x1 x1 x 2 x1 x3
u1 u u u3 u2
T P v 0 1 0 2 2 2

x 2 x1 u2 x 2 x3
0 0 1 u u2 u3 u
u1 3 2 3
x x1 x3 x 2 x3
3

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Parallel Plate Poiseuille Flow
Given: A steady, fully developed, laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a rectangular
channel of two parallel plates where the width of the channel is much larger than the
height, h, between the plates.

Find: The velocity profile and shear stress due to the flow.

Assumptions:
Entrance Effects Neglected
No-Slip Condition
No vorticity/turbulence

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Important Assumptions
The width is very large compared to the
height of the plate.
No entrance or exit effects.
Fully developed flow.
THEREFORE
Velocity can only be dependent on vertical
location in the flow (vx)
(vy) = (vz) = 0
The pressure drop is constant and in the x-
direction only. p Constant p , where L is a length in x.
x L
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Boundary Conditions
No Slip Condition Applies
Therefore, at y = -h/2 and y = +h/2, v = 0
The bounding walls in the z direction are
often ignored. If we dont ignore them we
also need:
z = -w/2 and z = +w/2, v = 0, where w is the
width of the channel.
For this problem we include this, and
make the width finite to make this
dependent on two variables.
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Incompressible Newtonian
Stress Tensor
Adapted from Table 3.3 in the text.

u x u y u x u z u x
2
x x y x z
u y u x u y u z u y
2
x y y y z
u z u x u z u y u z
2
x z
y z z
u x u x
0
Now, we cancel terms out y z
based on our assumptions. u x
0 0
This results in our new y
tensor: u x
0 0
z
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Navier-Stokes Equations
In Vector Form:

v
v v p 2
v g (Eq. 3.3.25)
t
Which we expand to component form from table 3.4:
x - component :
v x v x vx v x p 2vx 2vx 2vx
vx vy vz 2 2 g x
t x y z x x y z
2

y - component :
v y v y v y v y p 2v y 2v y 2v y
vx vy vz 2 2 g y
t x y z y x y z
2

z - component :
v z vz vz v z p 2vz 2vz 2vz
vx vy vz 2 2 g z
t x y z z x y z
2

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Reducing Navier-Stokes
x - component :
v x v x v x v x p 2vx 2vx 2vx
vx vy vz 2 2 g x
t x y z x x y z
2

y - component :
v y v y v y v y p 2v y 2v y 2v y
vx vy vz 2 2 g y
t x y z y x y z
2

z - component :
v z v z v z v z p 2vz 2vz 2vz
vx vy vz 2 2 g z
t x y z z x y z
2

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Reducing Navier-Stokes
ThisModified
reduces to:
Pressure

p 2vx 2vx
0 2
x y
2
z
Including our constant pressure drop:
p 2vx 2vx
0 2
y z
2
L

## Oops! Now we have a nonhomogenous

higher-order differential equation that is
inseparable. How do we deal with it?

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DiffEq Assumptions
We will assume this solution is a combination of simple parallel plate
Poiseuille flow plus some perturbation that is dependent on the
walls and finite width.

## Extracting the 1D Poiseuille flow, we can rewrite the equation as:

p 2vx 2vx
0 2
y z
2
L
where v x v x y, z
Vx y y , z
Therefore :
p d 2Vx 2 2
0 2
2 2
L dy y z
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DiffEq Solution - Setup
We can separate this into two equations, each of which equals zero.
Why?
0=0+0

p d 2Vx 2 2
0 2
2 2
L dy y z
Separated :
p d 2Vx
0 2

L dy
2 2
0 2 2
y z

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DiffEq Solution - Poiseuille

p d 2Vx
2

L dy
because this is the simple Poiseuille solution, we can see from
Eq. 2.7.18 that the above equation is equivalent to :
p d 2Vx
2

L dy
d yx

dy

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DiffEq Solution - Poiseuille
du x
From our stress tensor definition, yx
dy

## Therefore, we can follow the solution from

Section 2.7.2 to end up with :
ph 2 4 y2
ux 1 2
8L h

## Now we can focus our remaining efforts on the perturbation

function.

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Perturbation Function - Reduction
2 2 We can approach this
0 2 2
y z perturbation function by
a separation of
Where
variables method, as it
y, z Y y Z z is homogeneous.
Therefore
2Y y Z z 2Y y Z z
0
y 2
z 2

2Y y 2Z z 1 2Y y 2Z z
Z z Y y 2
Z z Y y 2
y 2
z Y y Z z y 2
z
0 1 2Y y 1 2Z z
0 2
Y y y 2
Z z z

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Perturbation Function - Separation
Because each term is independent of the other term, the
ONLY way this can be true is if each of the expressions is
equal to a constant. Thus we define a constant as follows:
2
1 2
Y y
1 2
Z z
Y y y 2 Z z z 2
We can now use our standard homogeneous
general solution :
Y y A1 sin y A2 cos y
Z z B1 sinh y B2 cosh y

## Now we can use our boundary conditions to solve for

these constants.

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Perturbation Function B.C.s
At y 0, we have a symetric region in our flow
(the point of maximum velocity on our parabola)
dY
0|y 0
dy
dY
A1 cos 0 A2 sin 0 0
dy
Because cos 0 1, A1 must be 0.
At the walls (y / - h/2) :
dY
0 cos h 2 A2 sin h 2 0
dy
To be a nontrivial solution, A2 cannot 0
Therefore, sin h 2 0 (error in text ?)
Thus can only have values of n 2n 1
h
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Perturbation Function B.C.s
For the Z portion of our separated function :
dZ dZ
0|z 0 B1n cosh 0 B2 n sinh 0 0
dz dz
Because cosh 0 1, B1 must be 0.
dZ
B2 sinh h 0
dz
To be a nontrivial solution, B2 cannot 0
We can now combine our equation for Y and our equation for Z to give us .

Y y Z z A1 cos n y B2 cosh n z
n 1

## Because constants are just constants, they combine

An cosh n z cos n y
n 1

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Perturbation Function B.C.s
We use our Boundary Conditions one more time to obtain :

y, z An cosh n z cos n y
n 1

y , w 2 An cosh n w cos n y u x
n 1
2

2 2
p h 4 y
y , w 2 An cosh n w cos n y 1 2
n 1
2 8L h
We now have an equation purely in terms of one variable (y). We can integrate to solve for
the coefficient An . At this point the textbook multiplies both sides of the equation by
2m 1y
cos . This makes both sides of the equation appropriately periodic.
h
This solution is nontrivial only when n m, so this can be rewritten as :

An cosh n w cos n y cos
2 n 1 y

ph 2
4 y 2

1 2 cos
2n 1y
2
n 1 h 8L h h
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Perturbation Function Integration
We can now integrate :
DID YOU CATCH THAT?
w cos y cos 2n 1y dy

An
h/2

n 0
h / 2
cosh n 2 n h
ph 2
h/2 4 y2 2n 1y
h / 2 8L h 2 h dy
1 cos This is a form of the

## Rearranging, we can re - write with the coefficient isolated : Fourier Transform.

cos 2n 1y dy

h/2

h / 2
cosh w cos y
n 0
n 2 n h Express a function as a
An
h / 2 ph 4 y2 2n 1y series of sin and cosine
2

h / 2 8L h 2 h dy
1 cos terms, and then you can
integrate and
Which results in :
ph 2 32
1 n
3 3

An 8L 2n 1 for n 0,1,2,...,
2n 1w
cosh
2 h
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Perturbation Function Integration
We can plug this into our original equations :
2n 1z 2n 1y
32 1 cosh
n
cos
ph 2 4 y 2 ph 2
h h
v x y, z 1 2
8L h 8L n 0
2n 1 3 3 cosh 2n 1w
2h
The textbook covers a way of calculating the shear stress. However, we have the
stress tensor, so we can go to this tensor directly to calculate this from our equation
above.
u x u x
0 You should be able to start
y z spotting the similarities between
u x our velocity equation, above, and
0 0 the stress tensor on the left.
y
u x
0 0
z
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Discussion
Why would it be useful to run an analysis
like this?
Helps select critical design dimensions for a
flow channel.
If there is a controlling dimension, we can
design a workaround.
Where else do you think they run this type
of analysis in engineering?

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