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MOSFET: Historical Prospective

MOSFET design utilizes


unique properties of
Si/SiO2 interface (no
interface defects)

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MOSFET: Historical Prospective

MOSFET design utilizes


unique properties of
Si/SiO2 interface (no
interface defects)

1968: Fairchild 8-bit P

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MOSFET: Technology
1925: Julius Edgar Lilienfelds MESFET patent
1935: Oskar Heils MOSFET patent
194?: Unpublished Bell Labs MESFET
1947: Ge BJT (Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley, Bell Labs)
1954: Si BJT (Teal, Bell Labs)
1960: MOSFET (Atalla&Khang, Bell Labs)
1961: Integrated circuit (Kilby, TI)
1963: CMOS (Sah&Wanlass, Fairchild)
1964: Commercial CMOS IC (RCA)
1965: DRAM (Fairchild)
1968: Poly-Si gate (Faggin&Klein, Fairchild)
1968: 1-FET DRAM cell (Dennard, IBM)
1971: UV EPROM (Frohman, Intel)
1971: Full CPU in chip, Intel 8008 (Faggin, Intel)
1974: Digital watch
1974: Scaling theory (Gnsslen&Dennard, IBM)
1978: Use of ion implanter
1978: Flotox EEPROM (Perlegos, Intel)
1980: Ion-implanted CMOS IC
1980: Plasma etching 3
1984: Scaling theory <0.25 m (Baccarani, U. Bologna)
MOSFET: Physics

1955: Si, Ge conduction band (Herring&Vogt)


Deformation-potential, high-field (Bardeen&Shockley)
1957: BTE in semiconductors impurities (Luttinger&Kohn),
phonons (Price, Argyles)
1964: Band structure calculations (Hermann)
Monte Carlo for semiconductors (Kurosawa)
1965: Linear-parabolic oxidation model (Deal&Grove)
1966: Observations of 2DEG (Fowler, Fang, Stiles, Stern,..)
1967: Conductance technique (Nicollian&Goetzberger)

1974: DDE device simulator (Cottrell&Buturla)


1975: Quantum Hall Effect predicted (Ando)

1979: Quantum Hall Effect observed (von Klitzing)


1981: Identification of native Nit: Pb-centers (Poindexter)
Full-band MC (Shichijo&Hess)
1982: Fractional QHE observed (Strmer&Tsui, Laughlin)
1988: Full-band MC device simulator (MVF&Laux)
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MOSFET: Physics of Si/SiO2
Interface

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MOSFET: Device Physics

A combination of a
MOS structure and a
BJT

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MOSFET: Carrier Transport
Simulations
Drift-Diffusion equation

Hydrodynamic/
Energy transport

Boltzmann

Quantum? 7
MOSFET: Early Patents

1935 Heils patent 8


1960 Atallas MOSFET
MOSFET: Geometry

Typically, L = 1 to 10 m, W = 2 to
500 m, and the thickness of the
oxide layer is in the range of 0.02 to
0.1 m.

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MOSFET: the Inversion Channel

vGS > Vt ,small vDS


applied.
the channel
conductance is
proportional to
vGS - Vt, and is
proportional to
(vGS - Vt) vDS.
Vt threshold voltage
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MOSFET: Threshold Voltage
The threshold voltage equals the sum of the flatband
voltage, twice the bulk potential and the voltage across
the oxide due to the depletion layer charge

q( N A N D ) 2 S 2F
VT VFB VC 2F
Cox q( N A N D )
Q Ec Ei
VFB MS ; MS M S M ( F )
Cox 2q
p n
F Vt ln Vt ln ;
ni ni
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MOSFET: Drain curent ID versus
VDS (I-V)
Enhancement-type NMOS transistor operated with vGS > Vt.

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MOSFET: Summary of Operation
Regimes
Operations of the
MOSFET and output
I-V characteristics. (a)
Low drain voltage.
(b) Onset of saturation.
Point P indicates the
pinch-off point. (c)
Beyond saturation.

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