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Consumer

Research Process
Chapter 2
Consumer Research
Process
Developing research objective
Collecting secondary data
Designing primary research
Designing and conducting quantitative
research
Data collection and instruments
Data analysis and reporting
Research
In much of society, research means to
investigate something you do not know or
understand.
By Neil Armstrong

Marketing Research has helped fast-


food chains like McDonald, identify and
respond to consumers desires for
healthier food
Marketing Research
Marketing Research systematic design,
collection, analysis, and reporting of data
and findings relevant to specific marketing
situation (opportunities or problems)
t u ni
p or m at
Op r te a
ty o m Sys ic Dat
r oble
p
Problem
Market
Image
Business
SalesIdentification
Analysis
Research
Potential
Trend
Segmentation
Product
Pricing
Promotion
Distribution
Research
Share
ResearchResearch
Research
ResearchResearch
Research
Research
Research
1. Research Objective
It direct selection of proper research
instrument
Synergy between who conduct and those who
need information
Management decision to Marketing
Research Problem.
Management Decision Marketing Research
Problem Problem
To determine consumer
Should a new product be
preferences and purchase
introduced
intentions
To determine
Should the advertising
effectiveness of current
campaign be changed?
advertising campaign
Determine price elasticity
of demand and impact on
Should price of brand be
sales and profits of
increased
various levels of price
Diet Cherry Coke Case
Diet cherry coke had been
languishing
Begin cut back distribution
Real problem was identified
was brand image
Not positioned properly
Image was consistent with
only Cherry coke
Problem identified as
measuring image and
positioning of diet cherry
Data Source
DataPrimary Data
2. Secondary Data
Collection
Existing information
Internal secondary data
Previous research, sales audit, customer inquiry
External secondary data
Business journals, marketing research agencies,
periodicals, people meter, click stream analysis.
Consumer panels
Members are paid to provide for recording their
purchases and media habits.
Step 2: Develop Research
Plan
Data Source
3. Designing Primary Research
Designing and conducting qualitative
research
Motivational researchers:
Uncover hidden or unconscious motives for
purchase behavior.
Depth interviews
Focus group
Qualitative research helps to identify
development and opportunity
3. Designing Primary Research
Depth interview:
One to one interview
Chance to consumer to express thoughts and
behaviors
Interviews managed by professionals.
3. Designing Primary
Research
Focus group:
Participants 8 10
To explorer particular subject or topic
Participants discuss reactions and comments
to products concepts or marketing campaigns
Comprised of target consumers (screened)
Set line of questions
Ensure all participants contribute
3. Designing Primary
Research
Qualitative research instruments
Projective techniques:
To explorer unconscious needs and motives
Incomplete sentence
Untitled pictures or cartoons
Word association
Part of focus group research
Aimed to explorer consumer feelings
Qualitative Research: projective
Technique
Qualitative Research: word association Technique
Research Instruments
Technological Devices
Galvanometers
Tachistoscope
Eye
Skin camera
sensors,tobrain
flashes
note
measure
wave
eye
anmovement
interest
ad
scanners,
on subject
and
and
emotions
within
full body
hundredth
aroused
scanners.
by
of any
a second
expo
Group Exercise
You show or express
image/personality/performance/ characteristics
of brands in following given form
Song
Film name Kurkure
Celebrity Lux
Film dialogue Iphone
Food
Ufone
Vehicle
Business subject name
3. Designing Primary Research
Qualitative research instruments
Metaphor analysis:
Using engaging tasks, exercises to get touch
with consumer inner feelings
Participants present their feeling in nonverbal
form
Sound, music, drawings, pictures.
To know perception of value of brand by
presenting pictures (for example)
Designing and conducting
Quantitative Research
Observational Research
Experimentation
Survey Research
1. Observational
Research
Carefully observing consumer actions,
especially in realistic surroundings.
Uncovering issues or problems with product
Electronic eye camera, electronic sensors
Conducting informal interviews
Equip consumers with pager ask them write
down what they are doing
Photographs
2. Experimentation
Scientifically valid research
Cause and effect relationship
Extraneous factors are eliminated or
controlled
Dependent and independent variables
Test marketing
3. Survey Research
Ask consumers about their preferences and
experiences
Challenges
Expensive
Unavailability of respondents
Unwillingness of respondents
Biased and dishonest answers by respondents
Contact Methods
Mail Questionnaire
Quantitative Data collection
Instruments
To systemize collection of data
Ensure all respondents are asked same
questions
Questionnaires
Attitude scales
Customer satisfaction measurement
Questionnaire
Questions, self administrative or guided by
field interviewers
Substantive and demographic questions
Opened-ended and close-ended questions
Sequence of questions
Attitude Scale
Finding relative feeling regarding product
attributes .
Likert Scale:
Marking corresponding level of agreement.
Strongly agree, somewhat agree, neutral,
disagree, strongly disagree
Semantic differential scale:
Bipolar adjectives(good/bad, hot/cold,
like/dislike)
Both extremes are anchored by a scale
Attitude Scale
Behavioral Scale:
Likelihood of consumer action.
Like: buying product or recommending to friend.
Rank order scale:
Consumers are asked to rank product, retail,
website etc.
Shows order of consumer preference
Preference on basis of some criteria
Scale helps to identify areas of improvements
Attitude Scale
Customer satisfaction Measurement:
Satisfaction of attributes
Relative importance of attributes
Measure performance against two expectation
levels: adequate and desired.
Mystery shoppers:
Professionals act as customer to evaluate
companys personnel services
Identify improvement opportunities
Because few unsatisfied customers complains
Sampling Methods
Sampling Methods
Combining Research
Findings
Qualitative Research Quantitative
(QUAL) Research (QUAN)
Purpose of Provide inside about new Describing a target
study product development, market-characteristics,
identify positioning, reactions. Used for
refine objectives of strategic marketing
quantitative studies decisions
Types of Open-ended, Often closed-ended
questions unstructured or probing questions, predefined
questions questions
Data collection Projective techniques Response choices
method
Main method Focus group, depth Scales
interviews
Sampling Small, non probability, Large, probability
sampling,
Data Analysis and
Reporting
Coding open-ended questions and quantify
Tabulated
Report
Executive summery of findings
Full description of methodology of research
Tables and graphs support findings
May or may not include recommendations and
suggestions.
Appendix: sample of questionnaire, other
related materials
End of Chapter