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Consumer Motivation

Chapter 4
Outline
Understand the types of human
needs and motives and the meaning
of goal
Understand dynamics of motivation,
arousal of needs, setting goals,
interchange between needs and
goals.
Several systems of Needs
development
How human motives are studied and
Motivation
Driving force to propel action
Unfulfilled needs create tensions
Human acquire behavior and goals to
fulfillNeeds
it
Motives
Goals
List down most your
purchases
In terms of special purchase
products, exclude regularly
purchased products
Learning
Learning

Needs
Needs Goal
Goalor or
wants,
wants, need
need
Tension
Tension Drive
Drive Behavior
Behavior
and
and fulfill-
fulfill-
desires
desires ment
ment

Cognitive
Cognitive
processe
processe
ss

Tension
Tension
reduction
reduction
Needs
Innate Needs
Your preferences
Car
Honda, Toyota XLI, Mitsubishi, Chevrolet
Housing
Sachal Colony, Lahori Mohalla, Pakistan Chowk
Shoes
Aerosoft, Weinberger, hush puppies, American
Boot house
Book
How to influence friends, philosophy,
Speculations and guesses.
Extrinsic Needs
(External)
Material comfort,
impress other, gain
reward from others
Extrinsic need aroused to
gain reward or avoid
punishment
Intrinsic Needs
(Internal)
Personally rewarding,
satisfying, for its own
sake
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Needs for a
Brand of TV
Aspects of Intrinsic Extrinsic
product Needs Needs
Aesthetic appeal Gratification on Status symbol
and brand premium offerings (TV) and
affordability
Sound quality Sensual pleasure Appear as (State of
art) innovator
Brand equity Reassurance Symbolic
(associated) (perceived risk) association
Special features Variety seeking To encourage word-
tendencies of-mouth about
oneself
Goal
Desired result of motivated behavior
Generic goal
Product specific goal
Selection of goal on personal values
Figure 4.4 Different Appeals for
Same Goal Object
Selection of Goal
Depends on
Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms and values
Goals accessibility in the physical and
social environment
Negative or positive goals
Approach object
Avoidance object
Research about goal
People
Promotion focus
Preventive focus
Utilitarian features-
> preventive focus
people
Hedonic features
-> promotion focus
people
Motives
Rational Motives
Careful consideration of alternatives
choosing best utility (features, pros,
cons)
Emotional Motives
Personal or subjective criteria (pride,
fear, affection, status)
Dynamics of Motives
Needs are not fully
satisfied
New higher need
arouses
Success and failure
influences goals
Multiplicity of Needs
and variation of goals
Arousal of motives
New higher need arouses
Changing
consumer
needs
Success and failure
influence goals
Success in achieving a goal directs for higher levels
of goal otherwise lowering goal.
Substitute Goals
Frustration
When people failed to select substitute goal
Adopt defensive approach
Defense mechanism
The mechanisms are psychological strategies brought
into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny,
or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of
anxiety and unacceptable impulses to maintain one's
self schema
Defense Mechanism
Defense Description
Mechanis
m
Aggression Recourse to aggressive behavior
Rationalizati Justifying failure by inventing reasons
on for goal attainment or reducing
importance of goal
Withdrawal Withdrawing from situation
Projection Projecting blame of failure on others or
situations
Day Fantasizing the achievement of goal
dreaming
Identificatio Subconsciously identifying with other
Multiplicity of Needs and
Goals
Difficult to infer motive from a
behavior
People with same need seek fulfillment
from different goal
People with different needs seek
fulfillment from same goal
Arousal of Motives
Physical arousal
Bodily needs
Emotional arousal
Daydreaming
Thoughts tend to arouse dormant needs
Cognitive arousal
Advertisement works as cues
Creative advertisement arouse senses
Arouse needs that have little opportunity for
viewer to see
Types and systems of Needs
Maslows hierarchy of needs
Evaluation of need hierarchy and
marketing application
Trio of needs
Maslows hierarchy of needs
Marketing implication of hierarchy
of needs
Segmentation and promotional
applications
Positioning of product: how product
should be perceived.
A Trio of Needs
Culture and Need States