Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

Difference Between Product and Brand

1.Product is made in 1. A brand is bought

a factory by the customer .
2. A product can be 2. A brand is unique.
3. A product can be quickly 3. A successful brand is
outdated. timeless
BRAND EQUITY : is a set of brand assets and
liabilities linked to a brand , its name and symbol ,
that add to or subtract from the value provided by
a product or service to a firm and /or to that firms
For assets or liabilities to underlie brand equity
they must be linked to the name and/or symbol of
the brand.
The assets and liabilities on which brand equity is
based can be grouped into 5 categories
1) Brand Loyalty
2) Name awareness
3) Perceived quality
4)Brand associations in addition
to perceived quality
5)other proprietary assets :
patents, trademarks,channel relationship etc.
Name Awareness Perceived quality
Brand Associations
Brand Loyalty Other proprietary
brand assets
Brand Equity
Provides value to firm by
Provides value to customer by
Efficiency and effectiveness
enhancing customers
of marketing programs
Interpretation /Processing of Prices/Margins
Brand Extensions
Confidence in the purchase Trade Leverage
Competitive advantage
Use satisfaction/delight
What is the value of a brand
Price premium generated by the name:
Impact of the name on customer preference
Replacement value of the brand
Stock price
earning power of a brand
Replacement value of the brand

Replacement cost: cost of establishing a comparable name

and business .
It is estimated that it costs $50 -100 million to develop
and launch a new consumer product and chances of
success is around 12-15%..
Thus on an average a firm will have to make 6 products
costing $ 300 million (taking the lower estimate)to ensure
atleast one winner.
A firm thus should be willing to pay $ 300 million to an
established brand in the category of interest.
Brand value based on stock price movements

Stock market adjusts the price of a firm to reflect future prospects of its
1) Find market value of firm --> function of stock price and number of shares
2) Find the replacement cost of tangible assets (plant, machinery, inventories,
3) Subtract 2 from 1
4)The balance intangible assets is apportioned into three components : value
of brand equity , value of nonbrand factors (R&D, PATENTS) and
value of industry factors (regulation and concentration)
5) Brand equity is presumed to be a function of age of the brand, entry of the
brand in the market (older brand has more equity), cumulative advertising
(advertising creates equity) and the current share of industry advertising
(current advertising share is related to positioning advantages).
Brand value based on Future Earnings

Find the discounted present value of future earnings

attributable to brand -equity assets.
Approach No.1 :-- discount the profit stream that is
Approach No. 2 : when brand profit plan is not available ,
estimate current earnings and apply an earnings multiplier.
If the current earnings are not representative because
they reflect an up or down cycle , then average of the past
few years is more appropriate. The multiplier range
could be 7 to 12 or 15 to 25 depending on the industry.
The actual multiplier is a function of the competitive advantage of the brand.
The estimate is based on weighted average of appraisal of the brand on the 5
dimensions of brand equity. Appraising Brand Assets 1) brand Loyalty :
a) What are the market shares and sales trends b) What are brand-
loyalty levels by segment c) Are customers satisfied/delighted ? D)
are they dissatisfied? What is the reason/extent of dissatisfaction
2) Awareness : a) Brand awareness level exists as compared to that of
competitors? B) What are the trends c) Is the brand being considered?
Perceived quality : What drives perceived quality? What is
important to the customer What signals quality Is perceived
quality valued- or is the market moving towards a commodity business
Are prices and margins eroding How do competitors stack up with respect to
perceived quality.
Other brand assets: Is there a patent or trademark that is important?
Are there channel relationships that provide barriers to competitors? Are
sustainable competitive advantages attached tot he brand name that are not
reflected in the other four equity dimensions?
Brand Associations :
What mental image does the brand stimulate/evoke?
Is that image a competitive advantage
Is there a slogan/ punch line /tagline /symbol that is a
differentiating asset?
How are the brand/competitors positioned.
Evaluate each position with respect to its value/relevance to consumers
and how protected /vulnerable it is to competitors.Which position is
the most valuable and protected
What does the brand mean?
What are its strongest associations?
P& G- Believers in Brand Management

In 1879 , Harley Procter named his soap IVORY

The soap was promoted as 99 44/100 % pure and that it floated.
The floatation property was created by production mistake which fed air into
the soap mixture.
Ivory was a remarkable product in a time when most soaps were yellow or
brown , irrated skin.
Also during those times the floatation value had practical value for those who
were frustrated trying to find their soap in water.
Well positioned soap----> pure, mild and floated.
The claims of purity and mildness were supported by white color, name Ivory,
the twin slogans and association with babies.
In 1941 , Lever Brothers launched Swan to challenge Ivory, but as there
was no product difference , the brand failed.
P& GS Product Portfolio - launched from
Tide- Detergent
Prell - Shampoo
Joy - dishwashing detergent
Crest - Toothpaste
Secret - cream deo
Jif - peanut spread
Ivory - Liquid soap
Pampers - disposable diapers
Folgers - coffee
Scope - Mouthwash
Bounty - paper towels
Pringles- potato chips
Bounce - fabric softeners
Duncan Hines - cookies
A striking aspect of P& G has been its willingness to develop
competing brands (multi brand concept) in order to serve new
segments , even if new brands threaten existing brands.
P&G has 10 brands in laundry detergent category which reach
a variety of segment s and has given P&G a 40%+ market
share .
1) Ivory Snow : ninety-nine and forty-four one-hundredths
percent pure,, the mild gentle soap for diapers and baby
2) Tide--- For extra-tough family laundry jobs-Tides in ,
dirts out
Cheer -works in cold, warm or hot water- All temperature Cheer
Gain- detergent with fragrance - Bursting with freshness.
Bold 3 - includes fabric softener - Cleans , softens and controls static
Dash- concentrated power, less suds to avoid clogging washing
Dreft- with Borax, natures natural sweetener for babys clothes
Oxydol:- contains bleach-for sparkling whites -with color safe bleach.
Era- concentrated liquid detergent-with proteins to clean stains
Solo- heavy duty with fabric softener
Brand Loyalty
Brand Loyalty pyramid

Likes the brand, considers

brand as a friend
Satisfied buyer with switching
Habitual buyer- no reason to change

Switchers /price sensitive- indifferent- no brand loyalty

Measuring Brand Loyalty
Behavior Measures: Repurchase rates: What % of Maruti Zen owners
purchase Zen on their next purchase % of Purchases: of the last five
purchases made by a customer, what % went to each brand purchased?
Number of Brands Purchased: What % of coffee buyers bought only
a single brand?, two brands?

Switching costs: If it is expensive or risky for a firm or consumer to

change suppliers, then the brand loyalty is on the higher side. E.g :
Investment in computer system or software like SAP
Strategic value of Brand Loyalty
Reduced Marketing Costs: It is much less costly to retain
customers then to attract new one ( COST RATIO IS 1:4)
Trade leverage: Strong pull (brand loyalty) from consumers
will ensure preferred shelf space because stores know that
customers will have such brands on their shopping list.
Attracting new customers:
Time to respond to competitive threats:If a competitor
develops a superior product , a loyal following will allow
the firm time needed for the product improvements to be
matched and neutralized.
Creating & Maintaining Brand Loyalty

Treat the customer Right

Stay close to customer
Measure/Manage Customer Satisfaction
Create switching cost
Provide extras
Creating & Maintaining Brand Loyalty

Measure / Manage Customer Satisfaction : Regular

surveys of customer satisfaction are useful in understanding
how customers feel and it also helps in adjusting product and
services. Dominos Pizza conducts weekly phone surveys
of customers measuring dimensions like response time,
lumpiness of dough, freshness of pepperoni and attitude of
delivery people. A bonus pool is distributed based upon
these measures.
Create Switching costs: Reward loyalty directly. For e.g The
airlines frequent flyers program .
Brand Awareness

Ability of a potential buyer to recognize or recall that a

brand is a member of a certain product category.

Top of
Brand recall

Brand Recognition

Unaware of brand

The awareness Pyramid

Brand awareness creates value in the following\g ways : 1)
Anchor to which other associations can be attached : for
e.g McDonalds:- Golden arches, clean/efficient, kids , fun
etc. 2) Familiarity/Liking: recognition provides the brand
with familiarity and people like the familiar.
3)Substance /commitment: The firm has been in
business for a long time. The firm is widely distributed and
the brand is successful. 4) Brands to consider ----- it
enters the evoked or consideration set.
How to achieve Awareness
Be different , Memorable:
Involve a slogan or jingle: e.g Lifebuoy hai jahan , tandorosti
hai wahan.
Symbol exposure: colonel sanders --KFC, golden arches-
Mcdonalds---> symbol should closely associate with the brand.
Publicity--- advertisement.
Event Sponsorship --- Femina Miss India, Manikchand Filmfare
Consider brand Extensions : one way to gain brand recall is to
put the name on other products.
Perceived Quality
Defn : customers perception of the overall
quality or superiority of a product or service
with respect to its intended purpose, relative
to alternatives.
Perceived Quality
Quality dimensions : 1) Performance : How well does a washing
machine wash clothes---> primary operating characteristics of service
2) Features: secondary elements like on/off timer in washing
machine etc. 3) Conformance with specifications: --- absence of
defects----- trouble free . 4) Reliability--- will the vacuum cleaner
work the same way each time it is used. 5) Durability: How long will the
washing machine last 6) Serviceability: is the service system efficient ,
competent and convenient. 7) Fit and finish:- does the product look
and feel like a quality product.
Perceived Quality
Research has shown that in many product classes a key
dimension which is visible can be pivotable in affecting
1) Stereo Speakers: larger size means better sound
2) Tomato ketchup-- thickness means quality.
3) Supermarkets--- fresh products means overall
4) cars: a solid door-closure sound implies good
workmanship and a solid safe body.
5) lawn mover-- noise signals quality