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SEXISM

SEXISM

Sexism is the range of attitudes,


beliefs, policies, laws, and behaviors
that discriminate against the
members of one sex.
SEXISM

Sexism is especially evident in


employment and contributes to the
earnings gap between men and
women.
SEXISM

The primary source of sexism is


socialization, particularly in the
family, where children are treated
differently on the basis of their sex.
SEXISM

Other sources:
Psychiatric medicine
the media
religion
legal system
SEXISM

Until fairly recently it was widely


accepted that the only desirable
roles for a woman were those of
wife, mother, and homemaker.
Over the past several decades
women have made many notable
gains.
FEMINISM

WOMEN'S LIBERATION DID NOT


CREATE THE WORKING WOMAN;
RATHER, THE WORKING WOMAN
CREATED WOMEN'S LIBERATION.
MARITAL PRO-CREATIVE
IMPERATIVE:
SEX CONFINED TO MARRIAGE
EVERYONE GOT MARRIED
EVERY MARRIAGE LEAD TO
PROCREATION
MARITAL PRO-CREATIVE
IMPERATIVE:
The marital procreative imperative
suited the government, churches,
and business who had interests in a
rising birthrate.
MARITAL PRO-CREATIVE
IMPERATIVE:
The imperative was reinforced by
dominant values and ideologies that
defined a womans place as in the
home.
A woman simply did not get married
to a man who could not support her
in the style she was accustomed to.
Women in the Workforce

100

80 1950

60 1960
1970
40 1980
1990
20
1993
0
MEN WOMEN
Married Women in the
Workforce
80
70
60
50 All Women
40 With Child < 6
30 With Child 6-17
20 With Child 18+
10
0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1991
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
THIS DRASTIC CHANGE IN THE
PARTICIPATION RATE OF MARRIED
WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE HAS
BROKEN THE BACK OF THE PRO-
CREATIVE IMPERATIVE.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
THE BABY BOOM COLLAPSED, THE
FERTILITY RATE BEGAN ITS HISTORIC
PLUNGE (REACHING A RATE OF ZERO
POPULATION GROWTH IN 1972 AND
FALLING STILL FURTHER TO AN
AVERAGE OF 1.8 CHILDREN PER
WOMAN BY 1980).
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
WHAT COMPELLED MARRIED WOMEN
TO LOOK FOR WORK?
WHAT IT WAS IN THE NATIONAL
ECONOMY THAT CREATED VAST NEW
NUMBERS OF JOBS?
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
ON THE WORKER'S SIDE, MARRIED
WOMEN'S INITIAL MOTIVATION WAS
TO PROVIDE A SUPPLEMENT TO THEIR
BREADWINNER HUSBAND'S INCOME.
TO ACHIEVE THOSE LIMITED GOALS,
MARRIED WOMEN WERE WILLING TO
ACCEPT PART-TIME, TEMPORARY,
DEAD-END JOBS.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
IN THE EARLY 1960s YOUNG
MARRIED WOMEN ENTERED THE
LABOR FORCE IN DROVES, NOT
BECAUSE OF FEMINISM, BUT
RATHER, CAUSED BY THE BEGINNING
OF THE GREAT INFLATION.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
WHILE IT IS CLEAR THAT THERE
WERE STRONG ECONOMIC
PRESSURES ON WOMEN TO BREAK
OUT OF THE HOMEBODY ROLE, WE
MUST NOT FORGET THE OTHER SIDE
OF THE EQUATION.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
AT FIRST, THESE NEW JOBS WERE
COMPATIBLE WITH THE TRADITIONAL
GOALS OF PROCREATION AND
MARRIAGE:
PART-TIME
TEMPORARY
FEMALE DOMINATED
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
THE GREAT BULK OF THE NEW JOBS
WERE OF TWO TYPES:
BUREAUCRACY
SERVICE
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
MOST OF THE NEW JOBS WERE
WHITE OR "PINK COLLAR"
OCCUPATIONS, AND THE GREAT
BULK WERE SITUATED WITHIN
GOVERNMENT OR CORPORATE
BUREAUCRACY.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
THESE ARE WOMEN DOMINATED
OCCUPATIONS, OFTEN
TEMPORARY AND/OR DEAD END,
AND ALMOST ALWAYS POORLY
PAID. EVEN TODAY THE
AVERAGE EMPLOYED WOMAN IN
THE U.S. MAKES ONLY 60 CENTS
FOR EVERY MALE DOLLAR.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
WHY MARRIED WOMEN:
VAST NUMBERS
UNAGRESSIVE
LOW-WAGES
EDUCATED
MIDDLE CLASS
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
THE TIMING OF THE FEMINIST
MOVEMENT AT THE END OF THE
1960s MARKS THE MOMENT OF
COLLECTIVE REALIZATION THAT
WOMEN WOULD HAVE TO CONTINUE
TO WORK AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A
RISING COST OF LIVING.
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
UNLESS WOMEN REBELLED THEY
WOULD GET THE WORSE OF TWO
WORLDS:
A DULL, BORING, DEAD-END JOB AT
WORK;
COOKING, CLEANING, CHILD CARE, AND
A CHAUVANIST MALE AT HOME
MARRIED WOMEN IN THE
WORKFORCE:
WHILE WOMEN WORKING OUTSIDE THE
HOME RECEIVED A LOT OF OPPOSITION
FROM SOME INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIETY, IT
BECAME A WIDESPREAD PRACTICE
BECAUSE OF ECONOMIC "NECESSITY.
The demise of the procreative imperative has
contributed to a rapid restructuring of American
work and family life.
Earnings Gap:

THERE IS STILL A SIGNIFICANT


EARNINGS GAP BETWEEN MEN AND
WOMEN IN THE AMERICAN LABOR
FORCE.
WHILE THE GAP BETWEEN THE
EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IS
BEGINNING TO NARROW (FROM 66%
IN 1983 TO ABOUT 75% IN 1995) IT
IS STILL SIGNIFICANT.
Womens Earnings
1956
80
1960
70
1964
60
1968
50
40 1972

30 1976

20 1980

10 1985
0 1988
% WOMEN'S EARNINGS OF MEN'S 1990
1992
Median Weekly Earnings
MANAGERIAL
800
700
TECHNICAL
600
500 SERVICE
400
300 PRECISION
200 PRODUCTION
100 LABORERS
0
MEN WOMEN FARMING,
FORESTRY
INCOME GAP:

ABOUT HALF OF THE INCOME GAP CAN BE


ACCOUNTED FOR BY INTERRUPTIONS IN
THE WORK HISTORIES OF WOMEN.
"PINK COLLAR" JOBS ALSO ACCOUNT FOR
SOME OF THE INCOME DISPARITY.
JOBS HELD MAINLY BY WOMEN (PINK COLLAR)
ARE PAID AT RATES THAT AVERAGE 20% LESS
THAN THOSE EQUIVALENT JOBS HELD MAINLY
BY MEN.
Pink Collar

TRADITIONAL SEX ROLES AND


STEREOTYPES HAVE PUSHED WOMEN
INTO THESE PINK COLLAR JOBS.
IN SCHOOL READING BOOKS, MALE
CENTRAL CHARACTERS ARE FIVE TIMES
MORE LIKELY THAN FEMALE. FEMALES
ARE STILL SHOWN IN TRADITIONAL
FEMALE ROLES.
Pink Collar

ABOUT 59% OF THE WORKING WOMEN IN


THE UNITED STATES ARE EMPLOYED IN
THESE "PINK COLLAR" JOBS.
WOMEN ARE CONCENTRATED IN THE
LOWER-STATUS JOBS AT THE LOW END OF
THE PAY SCALE. THE VAST MAJORITY OF
RETAIL CLERKS, TYPISTS, AND
SECRETARIES ARE WOMEN.
INCOME GAP:

DIFFERENCES IN INCOME ARE


NOT DUE TO DIFFERENCES IN
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT. FOR
THE PAST SEVERAL DECADES
MEN AND WOMEN HAVE
RECEIVED THE SAME AMOUNT OF
SCHOOLING.
In the Future:

THE PRESENCE OF LARGE NUMBERS OF


WOMEN INTHE LABOR FORCE CAN BE
EXPECTED TO PRODUCE CONTINUED
PRESSURE FOR GREATER EQUALITY
BETWEEN THE SEXES.
WOMEN'S MOVEMENT IS LIKELY TO FOCUS
ON SUCH ISSUES AS COMPARABLE PAY,
SEXUAL HARRASSMENT, ABORTION
RIGHTS, CHILD CARE AND CHILDREN'S AID.
Practice Quiz #12

1)_______________Beliefs which hold


one sex superior to the other thereby
justifying sexual inequalities.
Practice Quiz #12

2)_________________Social
organization that structures the
dominance of men over women.
Practice Quiz #12

3)________________The use of force to


compel one individual to engage in a
sexual act with another.
Practice Quiz #12

4)_________________A rigid and


inflexible image of the
characteristics a group.
Practice Quiz #12

5)________________Advocacy of the
social equality of the sexes.