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# Chapter 14: Well-

Performance Tests

## Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping

Test Data
Revised Second Edition

## Kruseman & de Ridder

Introduction
A well-performance test is conducted to determine aquifer losses and
well losses.

Aquifer losses are the head losses that occur in the aquifer where the
flow is laminar.

Well losses are divided into linear and non-linear head losses.
- Linear well losses are caused by damaging of the aquifer during
drilling and completion of the well.
- Non-linear well losses are the friction losses that occur inside the
well screen and in the suction pipe where the flow is turbulent.

## Skin effect concept of head losses in vicinity of well due to varying

hydraulic conductivities.
Pumped Well
Step-Drawdown Test
A single-well test process consisting of pumping the well at increasing
constant discharge rates (Q) until the drawdown becomes stable at each
Q.

Jacob equation:

## It is not possible to determine r ew from the data of a step-drawdown test

because you must know the storativity of the aquifer, which can only be
obtained from piezometer observations.
Variation to Jacobs Equation
Other researchers have suggested variations to Jacobs equation
based on differences found between the flows inside and outside
the well.

## The value of P = 2 is widely accepted.

We can predict the drawdown inside the well for any realistic
discharge (Q) at a certain time (t), then

## Find the relationship between drawdown and discharge to choose

an optimum yield for the well or to evaluate the wells efficiency
and/or condition.
Well Efficiency
The specific capacity of a well (Q/sw ) describes the
productivity of the aquifer and the well.
- decreases as pumping continues
- decreases as discharge increases

## However, the true degree of a wells imperfections cannot be

determined due to the difficulty of separating linear aquifer-
losses and linear well-losses.
Total Drawdown Inside a Well
due to Well Losses
The concepts of linear and non-linear head loss components
relate to the concepts of skin effect and non-Darcy, turbulent
flow.

## The total drawdown inside a well due to well losses can be

expressed as:
Hantush-Bierschenks
Method
To determine values of B and C (aquifer losses and linear and
non-linear well losses).

## Hantush expresses the drawdown sw(n) in a well during the n-th

step of a step-drawdown test as:
Hantush-Bierschenks Method
(contd)
After summing the increments of drawdown taken at a fixed interval
of time from the beginning of each step, we can write the equation
as follows:

## This method can only be applied when:

the assumptions listed at the beginning of Chapter 3 except the
1st and 5th are met
the aquifer is confined, leaky, or unconfined
the aquifer is pumped step-wise at increased discharge rates
the flow to the well is in an unsteady state
the non-linear well losses are appreciable.
Hantush-Bierschenks Method (contd)

## Determination of the drawdown difference for each step:

Hantush-Bierschenks Method (contd)

## Determination of parameters B and C (aquifer losses and well

losses):
Eden-Hazels Method
From step-drawdown tests in a fully penetrating well that taps a
confined aquifer, this method can determine the well losses and
transmissivity of the aquifer.

## The drawdown in the well is given by the Jacob equation:

Eden-Hazels Method
(contd)
We can derive the drawdown at time t during the n-th step from:

## This equation accounts for the influence of non-linear well losses:

Eden-Hazels Method
(contd)
The Eden-Hazel procedure can be used if:
all the assumptions at the beginning of chapter 3 except for
the 5th are met
the aquifer is pumped step-wise at increased discharge
rates
the flow to the well is in an unsteady state
u (r2S/4KDt) < 0.01
the non-linear well losses are appreciable
Eden-Hazels Method
(contd)
Plot of s(w)n (drawdown at time t) versus Hn (discharge increment at
time t)
Rorabaughs Method
Gives values of B (linear aquifer losses and linear well losses), C
(non-linear well losses), and P (discharge coefficient).

## This method can be applied when:

all the assumptions listed at the beginning of chapter 3 except
for the 1st and 5th are met
the aquifer is confined, leaky, or unconfined
the aquifer is pumped step-wise at increased discharge rates
the flow to the well is in an unsteady state
the non-linear well losses are appreciable.
Rorabaughs Method
(contd)
A plot of drawdown at time t minus linear losses versus constant
discharge during the n-th step: (trial-and-error straight line
method)
Sheahans Method
It gives values of B (linear aquifer losses and linear well losses), C
(non-linear well losses), and P (discharge coefficient).

## Assuming that B = 1, C = 1, P > 1, and that Qi is given for all values

of P, we can calculate the ratio s(w)n/Qn for selected values of Qn and
P using the equation from the Rorabaugh method.

## This method can be applied when:

All the assumptions listed at the beginning of chapter 3 except
for the 1st and 5th are met
The aquifer is confined, leaky, or unconfined
The aquifer is pumped step-wise at increased discharge rates
The flow to the well is in an unsteady state
The non-linear well losses are appreciable
Sheahans Method
(contd)
The values can be plotted as a family of type curves:
Sheahans Method (contd)
When we plot drawdown-discharge (s(w)n/Qn and Qn) data, we find
that the best match with Sheahans type curves is with the curve
for P = 2.8, as seen in this plot:
Determination of the
Skin Factor
The skin effect is defined as the difference between the total drawdown
observed in a well and the aquifer loss component, assuming the non-linear
well losses are negligible.

If the effective radius of the well rew is larger than the real radius of the
bore hole rw, it is a positive skin effect.
If rew < rw, the well is usually poorly developed or its screen is clogged, and
its a negative skin effect.

The procedure for determining the skin factor is applicable under these
conditions:
All the assumptions listed at the beginning of chapter 3 are adjusted for
recovery tests
The aquifer is confined, leaky, or unconfined
The flow to the well is in an unsteady state
u < 0.01
u < 0.01
The linear well losses (the skin effect) are appreciable and the non-linear
well losses are negligible.
Determination of the Skin Factor
(contd)

## Adding the skin effect to Jacobs equation, we obtain the following

equation for the drawdown in a well that fully penetrates a confined
aquifer and is pumped at a constant rate:
Determination of the Skin
Factor (contd)
After the pump has been shut down, we measure the residual
drawdown sw in the well with:
AQTESOLV
Step-drawdown test in a confined aquifer,
Saudi Arabia
- Uses Theis step-drawdown solution