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Trends in the periodic table:

Ionization Energy
Atomic Radius
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity
Background
Electrons can jump between shells (Bohrs
model supported by line spectra)
The electrons can be pushed so far that
they escape the attraction of the nucleus
Losing an electron is called ionization
An ion is an atom that has either a net
positive or net negative charge
Q: what would the charge be on an atom
that lost an electron? Gained two electrons?
A: +1 (because your losing a -ve electron)
A: -2 (because you gain 2 -ve electrons)
Ionization energy
Ionization energy is the energy required to
remove one outer electron from an atom
We will be examining the trends in ionization
energy in groups and periods
Handout
Note: atomic radius is the distance from the
nucleus to the outer electron shell
Follow directions on sheet and answer
questions (you can use textbook for help)
Ignore H when looking at trends, look at many
periods/groups when summarizing trends
Periodic table trends

Answers
Ionization energy vs. atomic number
2500 He
Ne
Ionization energy (kJ/mol)

2000
F Ar
1500
N
H O Cl
Be C P S
1000
B Mg Si
Al Ca
500
Li Na K
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Element
Atomic radius vs. atomic number
250
K
200
Atomic Radius (pm)

Na Ca
150 Li Mg
Al Si
100 Be P S Cl
B C N
O F Ar
50 Ne
H He
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Element
Answers
2 a) He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases
2 b) Li, Na, K, Alkali metals
3 a) Li, Na, K, Alkali metals
3 b) He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases
4. As one increases, the other decreases
5. Ionization energy increases
Atomic radius decreases
6. Ionization energy decreases
Atomic radius increases
7.
11p+ 11p+ 10p+
12n 12n 10n

Na has 11 Na+ has 10 Ne has 10


electrons electrons electrons

electron configuration of Na+ resembles Ne


Alkali metals become like noble gases
8. Radius increases because shells are added
Increased radius will make it easier to lose an
electron because of greater distance between
positive and negative charges
9. Proton # increases. More protons means
greater attraction between nucleus and outer
electron thus higher ionization energy.
The greater attraction also means that outer
electrons are brought closer to the nucleus,
thus smaller atomic radius results.

Li (enc = 1) Be (enc = 2) B (enc = 3)

+
++ ++
++ + +
++
+
10. Noble gases are ignored
11. Electron affinity is energy associated with an
atom gaining an electron. It is highest in the
top right where atoms are smallest with the
greatest number of protons
12. Electronegativity is a number that describes
the relative ability of an atom (when bonded)
to attract electrons. The trend is the same as
affinity for the same reason
Answers
2 a) He, Ne, Ar (1), Noble gases (1)
2 b) Li, Na, K (1), Alkali metals (1)
3 a) Li, Na, K, Alkali metals (1)
3 b) He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases (1)
4. As one increases, the other decreases (1)
5. Ionization energy increases (1)
Atomic radius decreases (1)
6. Ionization energy decreases (1)
Atomic radius increases (1)
/11
7.
11p+ 11p+ 10p+
12n 12n 10n

Na has 11 Na+ has 10 Ne has 10


electrons electrons electrons

Diagram of Na(1) & Na+(1), Na+ resembles Ne (1)


Alkali metals become like noble gases (1)
8. Radius increases because shells are added (1)
Increased radius will make it easier to lose an
electron because of greater distance between
positive and negative charges (1) /6
9. Proton # increases (1). More protons means
greater attraction between nucleus and outer
electron (1) thus higher ionization energy.
The greater attraction also means that outer
electrons are brought closer to the nucleus,
thus smaller atomic radius results.

Li (enc = 1) Be (enc = 2) B (enc = 3)

+
++ ++
++ + +
++
+
10. Noble gases are ignored (1)
11. Electron affinity is energy associated with an atom
gaining an electron (1). It is highest in the top right (1)
where atoms are smallest with the greatest number of
protons
12. Electronegativity is a number that describes the relative
ability of an atom (when bonded) to attract electrons (1).
The trend is the same as affinity (1) for the same reason
9 10: /7
Total: /24
Note: graphs from day 1 were marked separately

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