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Common-rail Diesel

Diagnosis Training
High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Goals

Reduce unnecessary replacing of parts


(NTF parts reaches 70% in some cases)

Reduce troubleshooting time

Improve overall customer satisfaction


High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Objectives

Improve system knowledge

Learn DTC detection conditions

Implement structured and logic troubleshooting


procedures
History of Common-rail System
Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations

Diesel EFI Common-rail

1st-generation
1st-generation
Common-rail
Common-rail
HP2
HP2 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump 2nd-generation
Solenoid Injector 2nd-generation
Solenoid Injector
HP3
HP3 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Discharge
Discharge Valve
Valve 3rd-generation
3rd-generation
135 MPa
Injector
Injector Compensation
Compensation NSR
NSR + + DPNR
DPNR
Code
Code Piezo
Piezo Injector
Injector
Max. Common-
rail Pressure 135 - 160 MPa
160 - 180 MPa
System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)

NE Signal Engine
EDU
G Signal ECU
Other Injectors
Various
Signals
Pressure
Fuel Pressure Limiter
Sensor Common-rail

Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
SCV Fuel SystemFilter
Supply Pump Fuel Tank
Warning Light
System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Engine
Front

Injection Pipe Injector

Fuel Inlet Pipe

Common-rail
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Supply Pump Pressure Limiter
SCV (Suction Control Valve)
Fuel Temp. Sensor
System Overview
Features of Common-rail System

Injection pressure, volume and


timing are controlled electrically High accuracy engine control

High pressure fuel Higher atomization of fuel

High pressure injection in all


Stores high pressure fuel
engine speed range

High performance and fuel economy


Low noise and vibration
Clean emission
System Overview
Sensors and Actuators

Intake Restrictor
Air Flow Meter Valve (Step Motor)

Atmospheric Intake Air


Temp. Sensor Temp. Sensor

E-VRV (for EGR Turbo Pressure


Valve Control) Sensor

VSV (for EGR


VSV (for Turbo
Valve Close)
Pressure Sensor)

Camshaft
Position Sensor Glow Plug

Injector Water Temp.


Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120


ECD System Components
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2 HP3

Type HP2 (Outer Cam) HP3 (Inner cam)


Generation 1st 2nd/3rd
SCV 2 (Time controlled) 1 (Duty-cycle)
Plunger 4 (Radial Type) 2 (Opposite type)
Weight [g (lb.)] 6040 (13.32) 3800 (8.38)
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel flow

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure

[Fuel Pressure Control]


Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Common-rail
pressure
SCV (Feedback)

Controls Crankshaft
SCV Calculation of Position Sensor
opening target injection
pressure
Accelerator Pedal
Engine ECU Position Sensor
ECD System Components
Supply Pump
SCV signals

HP3
ECD System Components
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
Detects the fuel pressure in common-rail and
provides feedback
To Injector From Supply Pump

Common-rail

[Fuel Pressure Sensor]


Pressure
Sensor Tip Limiter

Common-rail
Pressure
ECD System Components
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)

Output characteristic

Output Voltage (V)


4.2

1.0

0 160
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)
ECD System Components
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization

Solenoid Solenoid
Coil From Coil
Common-rail
Return to
Fuel Tank
Control
Chamber
Nozzle
Spring

Click! Nozzle Piston


Movie Needle

Nozzle
Injector Hole 6 or 8 Spring

Injector Pressure 135 180 MPa


Nozzle
Voltage 150 V Needle
ECD System Components
Injector
Small injection hall (0.14 mm)

[Top of Injector]

0.14 mm

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components
Injector
Difference in the injection of gasoline and common-rail
[Gasoline Engine] [Common-rail Engine]

Engine
Engine EDU
ECU
ECU

Constant Low Variable High


Pressure Pressure
[Approx. 0.3 MPa] [30 160 MPa]

Injection
Volume
Injection Volume

High
Long
Common-rail
Electricity Time Electricity Time Pressure
ECD System Components
Injector
Injection volume correction
Injector compensation code

Injector
Compensation Code
QR Code Compensation Code Type (QR Code)

Injection Quantity
Activation Pulse Correction TQ

Laser Marking : Correction Point


ECD System Components
EDU
150V

Voltage
Battery 0V
EDU Time
+B COM1

High
Voltage
Generation
Circuit
High
Voltage
IJT#1
INJ#1
IJT#2
Control INJ#2
IJT#3
Circuit INJ#3
IJT#4
Engine INJ#4
IJF
ECU

GND GND
ECD System Components
EDU
Injector drive signals

IJT#1

IJF

COM1

INJ#1
ECD System Components
Overview ECU Inputs

Basic Parameters
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)
Injector
Correction Parameters

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA) EDU


Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF) EGR Valve
Engine
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
ECU
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)

Ignition Switch (STA)
Blower Switch (BLW)
A/C Amplifier (AC) DLC3

Alternator (ALT)
ECD System Components
Overview ECU Outputs

Injector (Timing and duration)

Suction Control Valve

Various Sensor EDU (Power supply)


Engine
Intake Restrictor Valve
ECU


Glow Plug

EGR Valve

DLC3
ECD System Components
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)

Crankshaft Position Sensor


ECD System Components
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VPA, VPA2)

Magnets

Hall
ICs
ECD System Components
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU

VSV (for Turbo


Pressure Sensor)
ECD System Components
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
A quick response and high precise are realized by
driving a direct valve shaft

Rotary Solenoid Type


Torque Motor
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor

Magnet
Steel Layer
Hall IC

Magnet
Magnet
ECD System Components
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
Intake restrictor shutter valve position sensor

Magnet

Hall IC 5

Output Voltage (V)


VC 3.51

VLU
Engine
ECU 1
0.71
E2 0
0 20 70 100
(Full Close) (Full Open)
Intake Shutter
Intake Shutter Valve
Valve Position Opening Angle (deg)
Sensor
Common-rail Control Systems
Overall
Consists mainly two parts, fuel metering part and fuel
supply part
[Electrical Part] Injection Volume Control Injection rate Control
Injection Timing Control Turbo Control
Idle Speed Control EGR Control
Fuel Pressure Control Glow Control
Diagnosis

Various Sensor Engine ECU EDU

Supply Pump

Common-rail
Injector
[Mechanical Part]
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume decision
Engine ECU compares the basic and maximum
injection volumes, and determine the smaller
calculated value to be the final injection volume

Basic Injection Fuel Compensation


Volume Pressure Value
EDU

Decision on
Comparison
Duration

Maximum
Injector
Injection Feedback Value
Volume
Engine ECU
Injector
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection
Volume Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
(Map Data in ECU)
+
Clutch Switch (CLSW)
Basic Injection
Volume Correction
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)

Engine ECU ISC* Correction

*: Idle Speed Control


Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume

[Basic Injection Volume Pattern]


: Amount of Accelerator
Basic Pedal Effort (VPA)
Injection
Volume 100%
(Full Load)
50%

30%
20%
10%

Idle

Engine Speed
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne) Overheating Protection
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)

Basic/Maximum Fuel Pressure Sensor


Injection Volume (PC, VPC)
(Map Data in ECU)

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)


Maximum
Injection Volume Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Correction Air Flow Meter (VG)

Engine ECU Intake Air Mass


Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume

[Maximum Injection Volume Pattern]

Intake Air
Injection
Volume-large
Volume Varies by
Required Volume

Intake Air
Volume-small

Engine Speed
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 30% Selects basic injection volume

[Determining Injection Volume]


: Basic Injection Volume
Injection : Maximum Injection Volume
Volume

Selects lowest

30% VPA

Engine Speed
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 100% Selects Max. injection volume

[Determining Injection Volume]


: Basic Injection Volume
Injection : Maximum Injection Volume
Volume
Selects
lowest 100% VPA

Engine Speed
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by intake air

[Intake Air Pressure Correction] [Intake Air Temp. Correction]


Pressure Correction Overload Protection

Increase

Correction
Coefficient
Correction
1
Coefficient

Decrease Decrease
1

3 40
Turbo Pressure Sensor Output (V) Intake Air Temp. (deg)
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by fuel temperature

[Fuel Temp. Correction]

Increase

Correction
Coefficient
1

Decrease

40
Fuel Temperature (deg)
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by water temperature

[Water Temp. Correction]

Increase

Correction
Coefficient

40
Water Temperature (deg)
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration

Decides opening time of injector Controls opening


by final injection volume timing of injector

NE Signal Engine
EDU
G Signal ECU
Various
Signals
Pressure
Limiter
Common-rail
From
Supply Pump
Fuel Pressure Sensor Injector
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration

Basic Injection Fuel


Volume Pressure

Comparison INJ Time EDU


Volume Calculation

Maximum Injector
Injection Injector
Compensation
Volume Feedback Value
Value
Engine ECU

Injector
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume control during starting

Increase

Correction
Coefficient

Starting Injection Volume 1

Basic Injection 40
Volume Water Temperature (deg)

+ Ignition Switch (STA)

Corrections Water Temp. Sensor

Crankshaft Position Sensor

Engine ECU
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Basic injection timing
(injection timing control after started)

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection Timing


Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
+
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Injection Timing Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Correction

EDU
Engine ECU
Injector
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing control during starting

Crankshaft Position Sensor


(Ne)
Target Injection
Ignition Switch (STA)
Timing Correction
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Engine ECU
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing corrections
Target injection timing = Basic timing + corrections
[Intake Air Pressure Correction]
Timing : Engine Speed
[Basic Target Injection Timing] Advance
(CA) High rpm
BTDC : Amount of Accelerator
(deg) Pedal Effort (VPA) Low
rpm
Full Load
Intake Air Pressure (PIM)
[Water Temp. Correction]
15 Timing : Water Temp.
Advance
Light Load
(CA) COLD

HOT
Engine Speed (rpm)

Engine Speed (rpm)


Common-rail Control Systems
Idle Speed Control
Target idle speed control

Accelerator Pedal Position


Sensor (VPA)

Water Temp. Sensor (THW)


Target Engine Speed
Calculation Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)

Ignition Switch (STA)

A/C Amp. [Idle-up Signal] (ACT)

Injector Electric Load


Comparison Volume
Correction

Actual Engine
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Speed
Engine ECU
Common-rail Control Systems
Idle Speed Control
Feedback correction
Idle speed fluctuations are detected by comparing
t values
360CA

Crankshaft Position
Sensor Signal (Ne)
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure

[Fuel Pressure Control]


Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Common-rail
pressure
SCV (Feedback)

Controls Crankshaft
SCV Calculation of Position Sensor
opening target injection
pressure
Accelerator Pedal
Engine ECU
Position Sensor
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure
To control target fuel pressure in common-rail by
SCV

: Calculated Final Injection Volume

MAX

Target Injection Fuel


Pressure

MIN

Engine Speed (rpm)


Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Injection rate control
TDC
Small Injection [Delta Injection]
Amount Prior to
Combustion Ignition
Process

High
Improvement [Pilot Injection]
Injection
Injection Rate
Rate

Heat Large Small


Pre-mixture Pre-mixture
Combustion Combustion
Heat (NOx, Noise)
Generation
Rate

Ignition Delay
Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Pilot injection

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Pilot Timing


Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)

Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)


Correction
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Pilot Injection
EDU
(Volume, Timing, Interval)
Injector
Engine ECU
Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Main injection timing

Camshaft Position
Sensor Signal (G)
Fuel Quantity
Injection Timing

Pilot Injection Main


Injection
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
EGR control system
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Intake Restrictor
Intake
Valve Control Motor
Position Sensor
Restrictor Engine Water Temp.
Valve ECU Sensor
Turbo Pressure
EGR Valve Vacuum Sensor
Position Pump Atmospheric Intake Air Temp.
Sensor Pressure Sensor
Sensor

Vacuum
Damper

EGR Valve
E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)
Engine
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system

Air Out
Reduction Gears Intake
Restrictor Valve

Air IN
Step Motor
Throttle Valve Fully Opened Switch
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system

Crankshaft Position Sensor


Intake Restrictor (Ne)
Valve Control
Motor Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Intake Air Temp. Sensor


Engine
(THA)
ECU
Accelerator Pedal Position
Intake Restrictor
Sensor (VPA)
Valve Position
Intake
Sensor
Restrictor Valve Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Ignition Switch (STA)


Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Glow control system

Ignition ON
After Glow Time (sec.)

Switch
OFF
120
Glow ON
Plug
OFF
After Glow Time
Engine
Speed 0
0 20 40 (rpm)
(68) (104)
Starting Engine
Engine Coolant Temp. [C (F)]