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SOC SCI 004

TIP, QC
ILO

Discuss the structure and


functions of the human
nervous system
BIO REGULATORS OF HUMAN
BEHAVIOR
1. Nervous system
2. Endocrine system
Functions
1. To receive the information
from environment.
2. To receive the information
from various body parts i.e,
stimuli response.
3. To act accordingly
through muscles and
glands.
What is a neuron or nerve
cell?
It is the functional and structural
unit of the nervous system.
-basic unit of the nervous system
-producing chemical and electrical
signals
-receiving and transmitting
information to and from the brain
PARTS of NEURONS
Neuron has a cell body called cyton
containing a nucleus and cytoplasm.

It has several branched structure


calledDendrites.These are the points
where information is acquired.
Receive nerve impulses(messages/info)
electrical in nature
Neuron has a long nerve fibre
calledAxonwhich is covered by a
protective covering called Myelin
sheath. Information travels as an
electrical impulse i.e, Nerve impulse
through axon.

Nerve end or Terminal


Branches: It is a part where
electrical signal is converted into
chemical message for onward
transmission to next neuron by
Synapse:It is the junction point
between two neurons.

Reflex action:Any quick, sudden,


immediate response os the body to
the certain stimuli that involves
spinal cord(not brain) is known as
Reflex action. Examples are :
withdrawal of hand, Knee Jerk etc.
Sensory nerves or
afferent:These are nerves
which carry information from
the receptors(sense organs) to
the brain and spinal cord.

Motor nerves or
efferent:These are nerves
which carry information from
the brain and spinal cord to
Effectors: are the muscles
and glands which respond to
the
information from the brain
and spinal cord through the
motor nerves.
Relay Neuron:It is a kind of
connector neuron which
collects message from the
sensory neuron and delivers it
to motor neuron after
Glial Cells
- outnumber the neurons by 10 to 1
-provide support to the neurons by
supplying them with nutrients,
releasing chemicals that influence a
neurons growth and function
-clearing wastes
Neurotransmitters
-chemical substance released by one
neuron through the synapse and
affect or influence the receiving
neuron
-responsible for sensation, perception,
cognitive and motor behavior
-excess or deficiency is linked to
abnormal behavior
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
THE BRAIN AND SPINAL
CORD
WHAT IS BRAIN?
- Huge communication network
- Processes info and data
- Control system of the nervous
system
Brain is the main
coordinating centre in the
human body.
-It is protected by
thecranium.
- It is covered by three
membranes
calledmeningesfilled with a
fluid called cerebrospinal
3 Main Parts of the Brain
Fore brain
Mid brain
Hind brain.
Fore brain-It consist of the cerebrum,
thalamus, and limbic system

1. Cerebrumis the seat of memory and


intelligence and of sensory centers like
hearing, smell and sight.
1.1 left hemisphere- controls right
(verbal abilities- speaking, writing,
language and numbers

1.2 right hemisphere- left (non-verbal such


as drawing, music, and perceptual task)
4 lobes
1. Frontal lobe-seat of personality and
movements
2. Parietal lobe-skin senses and body
position
3. Occipital- visual sensation and
memory
4. Temporal hearing, speaking,
understanding verbal and written
materials
2. Thalamus- relay station
It is the main thinking part of the
brain.
Controls the voluntary actions.
Stores information(MEMORY).
Center associated with HUNGER.
Receives sensory impulses from
various body parts and integrates it.
3. Limbic system
-receives sensory images from the
visceral organs and helps control
their activities
--emotion, memory, motivation, and
reinforcement
3.1 amygdala- emotion and self
preservation
3.2 hippocampus- fleeting memories
into permanent long term memory
3.3 hypothalamus- controls sleep/ wake
cycles/ digestion/ breathing/ hunger/
thirst/body temperature/blood
pressure/ pleasure/ pain/ water
balance
Hind Brain

It consist of cerebellum, medulla and


pons.
Cerebellum: It controls muscular
activities and posture and balance. It
also controls precision of voluntary
actions.
Medulla: It controls involuntary
actions. Examples: blood pressure,
salivation, vomiting etc.
Pons: It controls involuntary actions
and helps in regulation of respiration
Mid Brain
It connects the fore brain to
the Hind brain and control the
reflexes for sight and hearing.

Hypothalamus: Helps in
chemical coordination.
Pituitary gland: Helps in
secreting hormones.