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Woodcock Johnson-IV

Tests of Cognitive
Abilities and Tests of
Achievement
New York Association of School Psychologists Conference
November 6, 2014
John M. Garruto, D.Ed., NCSP
Educational Consultant-Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/Riverside
Goals of presentation
Participants will have an understanding of the differences between the
WJ-III and WJ-IV.
Participants will learn the new clusters that are available in the WJ-IV.
Participants will be familiar with the new subtests that are in the WJ-
IV.
Participants will be able to understand the difference between
standard scores and the Relative Proficiency Index (RPI).
Participants will understand the procedures of the intravariation and
comparison discrepancy procedures.
Assumptions of the Presentation
Participants will already be familiar with the WJ-III
COG/ACH.
Participants will already be familiar with CHC theory as it
was conceptualized for the WJ-III COG.
Special Thanks
Changes from the WJ-III
CHC theory
WJ-III
Gc-Comprehension-Knowledge
WJ-IV
Gv-Visual-Spatial Thinking Gc-Comprehension-Knowledge

Gf-Fluid Reasoning


Gv-Visual Processing
Gf-Fluid Reasoning

Gsm-Short-Term Memory Gwm-Short-Term Working Memory


Gs-Cognitive Processing Speed
Gs-Processing Speed Ga-Auditory Processing
Glr-Long-Term Retrieval
Ga-Auditory Processing
Glr-Long-Term Retrieval
Changes from the WJ-III:
Global Clusters

WJ-III
GIA-General Intellectual
Ability
WJ-IV
BIA-Brief Intellectual GIA-General Intellectual Ability

Ability BIA-Brief Intellectual Ability


Gf-Gc Composite
Changes from the WJ-III
Narrow Ability and Clinical Clusters

WJ-III (Not including the DS or


ACH)
Verbal Ability WJ-IV

Thinking Ability Quantitative Reasoning


Auditory Memory Span
Cognitive Efficiency Number Facility

Broad Attention Perceptual Speed


Vocabulary
Executive Processes Cognitive Efficiency

Cognitive Fluency
Phonemic Awareness
Changes from the WJ-III:
Subtests moved
Sound Blending-moved to the Oral Language
Rapid Picture Naming-moved to the Oral Language
Retrieval Fluency-Moved to the Oral Language
Changes from the WJ-III:
Voted Off the Island

Incomplete Words
Decision Speed
Visual-Auditory Learning Delayed
Planning
Fun time-The Top 5 signs youve
given the WJ COG too much
1. You name your children Bob and Jeffand one of them is a girl.
2. You know how to sound just like the audio voice for sound blending.
3. When your significant other asks you what you want for breakfast,
you reply, Wafflesthey have to be both big and round.
4. When you ask your child to do their homework, you say, Tell me if
you have finished before I say stop.
5. When your significant other asks you what you want for your
birthday, you think of as many items as you can in one minute.
Changes from the WJ-III:
New and Different Subtests

Oral Vocabulary (was Verbal Comprehension)-only has


synonyms and antonyms
Number Series (was the second half of Quantitative
Concepts on the WJ-III ACH)
Verbal Attention
Letter-Pattern Matching
Phonological Processing
Changes from the WJ-III:
New and Different Subtests

Story Recall (moved from the WJ-III ACH)


Visualization (combined spatial relations and block
rotation from the DS)
Numbers Reversed-now has a strict basal and ceiling rule-
no more groups
Number-Pattern Matching-was called Visual Matching
Nonword Repetition
Object-Number Sequencing-was called Auditory Working
Memory
Selective Testing Table
Psychometricsbriefly
RELIABILITY-Aim for the WJ-IV was to have cluster
reliabilities at .90 or higher and subtest reliabilities at .80
or higher. Reliabilities almost always met this standard
with a couple of exceptions. The median reliability for
picture recognition is .74. The median reliability for
visual processing is .86. Otherwise, the goals were
achieved (17 clusters and 17 subtests).
Psychometricsbriefly
Validity-Established through intercorrelations with other
tests:
GIA-FSIQ=.86
Gf-Gc Composite-FSIQ=.83
Gc-VCI-.79
Gf-PRI-.70 Gv-PRI-.55
Gwm-WMI-.72
Gs-PSI-.55
Other tests (WPPSI-III, WAIS-IV, K-ABC II, S-B5 AND DAS-2 in the TM)
WJ-IV COG Subtests
Oral Vocabulary
This is like Verbal Comprehension from the WJ-III, though
it only has synonyms and antonyms. The pictures and
analogies have been removed.
This subtest loads on the GIA, BIA, Gf-Gc cognitive
composites, as well as the CHC of Gc, and the narrow
ability of Vocabulary (along with Picture Vocabulary from
the OL.)
The median reliability is .89 for ages 5-19 and .92 for
adults.
New!
Number Series-
This was once the second half of the Quantitative Concepts subtest in
the WJ-III ACH.
This subtest is part of the GIA, BIA, Gf-Gc Composite, Fluid Reasoning
(Gf) and Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) clusters. It measures the narrow
abilities of quantitative reasoning and inductive reasoning.
This subtest measures ones ability to determine what number logically
fits in a missing series after determining the overall rule. It has a
median reliability of .91 for children and .90 for adults
Subtest has a one minute guideline. However, if the examinee is
actively working on the problem, allow them to continue working.
New!
Verbal Attention
This subtest loads on the Gwm cluster and also on the
cognitive efficiency extended cluster.
This is a working memory task that also requires attention
to determine what the demand will be. According to the
manual, it is a measure of working memory and
attentional control. The median reliability is .86 for
children and .83 for adults.
Example: Dog, 5, 2, Catwhat was the second number?
New!
Letter-Pattern Matching
This subtest loads on the GIA cluster, the Cognitive Processing
Speed (Gs) factor, the narrow Perceptual Speed (P) factor, and
also the Cognitive Efficiency Cluster.
Letter-Pattern Matching is a Cognitive Processing Speed task
(Gs) that requires examinees to determine which letter or letter
groups are the same.
Circle the identical letters or letter groups: bl va dl bl na
This subtest is primarily a perceptual speed task with test-retest
reliabilities of .88-.91.
New!
Phonological Processing
This is actually a subtest with three parts. It loads on the
GIA and Auditory Processing (Ga) indexes.
Parts A and C measure Ga with the narrow ability of
phonetic coding. Part B is also a measure of the speed of
lexical access (which is a Glr skill).
This subtest has a median reliability of .83 for children
and .9 for adults.
New
Story Recall to COG!
This subtest was moved from the WJ-III Achievement. It
measures the GIA and the broad ability of Long-term
Retrieval (Glr). It is a measure of the narrow ability of
Meaningful Memory (although this is not a score you get.)
The examinee listens to a story and then gives the story
back. Bolded words must be present to get credit.
Median reliabilities are .93 for children and .91 for adults.
Visualization
This is a combination of the subtest Spatial Relations from
the WJ-III Cog and Block Rotation from the WJ-III DS. It
measures the GIA and the Visual Processing (Gv) factor.
Spatial Relations is the sameonly this timeexaminees
are not allowed partial credit; they must get all
components correct. Block Rotation is also the same-the
examinee must look at a three dimensional figure and
identify the same figure that is rotated (two options are
always correct.)
This subtest has a median reliability of .83 for children
and .87 for adults.
General Information
Just like in the WJ-III, it is a measure of background
knowledge. The examinee identifies where certain objects
may be found and what may done with certain objects.
It is a measure of the Gf-Gc Cognitive Composite and Gc-
Comprehension Knowledge.
It has a median reliability of .84 for ages 5-19 and .91 for
adults.
Concept Formation
Exactly like on the WJ-IIIthe examinee must figure out
the underlying rule that governs the problem-it is a
measure of inductive reasoning and also measures
cognitive flexibility.
The subtest loads on the Gf-Gc cluster as well as the Gf-
Fluid Reasoning Cluster.
It has a median reliability of .93 for ages 5-19 and .95 for
adults.
Numbers Reversed
Like the WJ-III although this time, rather than test in
groups, theres a straight basal and ceiling. The examinee
provides a series of numbers in reverse, which is a
measure of working memory.
The subtest loads on the Gwm-Short Term Working
Memory Cluster as well as the Number Facility and
Cognitive Efficiency Clusters.
The subtest has a median reliability of .84 for ages 5-19
and .91 for adults.
Number-Pattern Matching
Renamed from Visual Matching on the WJ-III. The task
is exactly the same-circle the two numbers in each row as
quickly as possible.
The test loads on the Number Facility, Perceptual Speed,
and Cognitive Efficiency-Extended Cluster.
The subtest has a test-retest reliability of .85 for ages 7-
11, .84 for 14-17 and .88 for adults.
New!
Nonword Repetition
This loads on the Auditory Processing (Ga) factor. It is a
mixed measure of Ga and Gwm (specifically what is known
in Baddeleys model as the phonological loop.)
Examinees listen to a nonsense word and must say what
the nonsense word is. The words become increasingly
complex (e.g. Bambledyegoneegone)
This subtest has a median reliability of .90 for all ages.
Visual Auditory Learning
Test is exactly the same as the WJ-III, only there is no
delayed recall task. This controlled learning task teaches
the examinee the name for a symbol and asks the
examinee to recall the name (yes, Bob and Jeff are still
there!)
This subtest loads on the Glr (Long Term Retrieval) and
measures the narrow ability of associative memory.
This subtest has a median reliability of .96 in the 5-19 age
and .98 in the adult age.
Picture Recognition
Just like in the WJ-IIIonly this time-the examinee must get all
the items correct-no partial credit. Also, straight basals and
ceilings are done rather than group rules.
No more wall phonestelephone Z is gone. However, windows
R&S are the two windows you saw before.
PR loads on the Visual Processing (Gv) factor and measures the
narrow ability of visual memory.
PR has a median reliability of .71 for ages 5-19 and .73 for
adults.
Analysis-Synthesis
Exactly like the WJ-IIIindividuals look at a key and
determine what colors go in the missing squares.
This subtest loads on the Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Extended
and Quantitative Reasoning factors.
A-S has a median reliability of .92 for ages 5-19 and .94
for adults.
Object-Number Sequencing
Was called Auditory Working Memory on the WJ-III. The
subtest is exactly the same, although there is no partial
credit and you do not test by groups.
This subtest loads on the factor of Short-Term Working
Memory-Extended (Gwm).
This subtest has a median reliability of .89 for ages 5-19
and .87 for adults.
Pair Cancellation
Exactly like the WJ-IIIexaminee circles each instance of
the ball followed by the dog.
It loads on the Processing Speed (Gs) cluster and also
provides information about attentional control.
PC has a test-retest reliability of .89 for ages 7-11, .89 for
14-17 and .95 for adults.
Memory for Words
Exactly like the WJ-III, only you no longer test by item
blocks. Examinee listens to multiple words spoken and
must repeat the words in the same sequence. Many of the
words cannot be visualized. Rhyming words get credit.
This subtest loads on the narrow ability of auditory
memory span combined with sentence repetition from the
oral language battery.
The median reliability is .82 for ages 5-19 and .82 for
adults.
A note about basals and ceilings
Sometimes people misunderstand the basal and ceiling
rule. You must test by complete pages.
The complete page rule is that if youre testing and you
meet the ceiling, you keep testing until you have reached
the bottom of a page if there is visual information on the
examinees side. If the examinee gets any of the items
correct after the perceived ceiling, not only are those
responses creditedbut you keep testing. You only stop
when you meet the ceiling at the end of a page.
GIA score
To get an overall GIA (g) score-you must give the first 7
subtests. This gives one measure of each of the CHC
abilities.
BIA score
To get a BIA score-you give the first 3 subtests. Its one
measure of Gc, one of Gf, and one of Gwm. The purpose is
primarily for screening.
Gf-Gc
This is a four-factor composite that is new to the WJ-IV. It
is two measures of Gc (Oral Vocabulary and General
Information) and two measures of Gf (Number Series and
Concept Formation).
This was developed so that measures of Gwm and Gs do
not attenuate the overall composite.
Subtests you must administer for
composites:
Comprehension-Knowledge-Gc: Oral Vocabulary and General Information.
Fluid Reasoning-Gf: Number Series and Concept Formation (Analysis
Synthesis gives you Gf-Ext.)
Short-Term Working Memory-Gsm: Verbal Attention and Numbers
Reversed (Object-Number Sequencing gives you Gsm-Ext.)
Cognitive Processing Speed-Gs: Letter-Pattern Matching and Pair
Cancellation.
Long-Term Retrieval-Glr: Story Recall and Visual Auditory Learning
Visual Processing-Gv: Visualization and Picture Recognition
Subtests you must administer for
composites:
Quantitative Reasoning: Number Series and Analysis-Synthesis
Auditory Memory Span: Memory for Words and Memory for Sentences
(OL)
Number Facility: Numbers Reversed and Number Pattern Matching
Perceptual Speed: Letter-Pattern Matching and Number Pattern Matching
Vocabulary: Oral Vocabulary and Picture Vocabulary (OL)
Cognitive Efficiency: Letter-Pattern Matching and Numbers Reversed
(Administering Verbal Attention and Number-Pattern Matching gives you
Cognitive Efficiency-Ext.)
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 1-Qualitative
This is about examining an examinees test behavior. The examinee who
has word finding difficulties, vs. the one who gives antonyms for
synonyms, vs. the one who says dunno for items may all get the same
raw score but the interpretation may be different.
Use the cover of the test protocol to identify the types of behaviors noted.
The achievement test actually has qualitative norms. You check off how
the student attacked the various problems (e.g. read words quickly and
fluently) and the manual has actual norms on the percentage of
respondents in the standardization sample who achieved a similar rating.
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 2-Level of Development:
Use of age and grade equivalent.
As we know, age and grade equivalents are misunderstood
metrics. The layperson will think that a grade equivalent of 2.4
means the child is reading on a grade 2, 4 month reading level.
Actually it means they have the same number of items correct as
the student who was at grade 2.4 in the norm sample who
performed at the 50th percentile.
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 2-W scores
W scores are not easily understood by many. This has to do with
Rasch scaling and item response theory.
W scores are calibrated arbitrarily. In this case, a W score of 500
was calibrated for the average 10-0 or 5.0 student (at the 50 th
percentile). The W score is the basis for both the RPI and the
instructional zone of proficiency (which are level 3 scores).
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 3-Proficiency:
W scores and W difference scores. A W score reflects a probability that the individual will get
50% of the items correct and 50% of items incorrect. So a student who earns a W score of 500
gets a grade equivalent of 5.0. The average individual at that grade level with a proficiency at
W of 500 would likely get half of the items correct and half of the items incorrect.
50% of items correct would not suggest proficiency. The authors move proficiency to 90%
proficient. Therefore, based on the difficulty of the items, it is figured out which W score a
student would need to get 90% of the items correct. For example, for an average 5.0 student,
perhaps its a W score of 450 (Im just making this up but lets use this number).
Now, lets assume youre evaluating a student in grade 5.0. You want to determine how
proficient your examinee would be against the average 5.0 would be with a W difficulty for
getting 90% correct. This means the Reference W would be 450 (not 500 as that is only 50%
proficiency.)
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 3-Proficiency
So lets assume your examinee was administered Number Series.
Your examinee gets a W score of 420. Thats 30 points lower than
the W score of 450. So at a W of 450-perhaps your examinee will
only be at 65% proficiency (again I just made up the score).
Thats where the RPI comes into place. The RPI score for your
student is 65/90. This can be viewed like a Snellen chart. It
means that what the average 5th grade student would get with
90% accuracy your student would get with 65% accuracy.
Hierarchy of WJ-IV scores (Mather
& Wendling, 2014).
Level 4-Relative Standing in a Group
Standard Scores/percentile ranks. Basically these are scores most
school psychologists are used to. They identify how many more
people their score is stronger than in the standardized population.
So a score at the 25th percentile means your examinee performed
better than 25% of the standardization sample.
RPIs and standard scores
The RPI and standard score do not always correlate. A way to conceptualize this
was created by Joseph Claeys (Account Executive for HMH-Midwest).
Assume you have 10 horses in a race. If your horse is in 3 rd-youre at the 30th
percentile. 70% of the horses are faster than you. Youre still in the average range.
However, the horses do not run at the same speeds. The horse at the 50 th
percentile may run 10 mph. The horse at the 40 th percentile may run 5 mph. Your
horse may run 4 mph. So yes-horses in the 30 th percentile still run better than 30%
of the horses-but 30% of the horses run significantly slower than the horse at the
halfway point.
This is why you may have many students who dont qualify (use of level 4 scores)
but who still struggle (use of level 3 scores).
Intravariation procedure
The intravariation procedure is an analysis of the examinees strengths
and weaknesses.
Basically, to get an intavariation analysis, you must complete the first
seven subtests.
The predicted score of the subtest will be based on an average of the
other 6 (its not a straight average, it is adjusted based on the
psychometrics of the test).
So the oral language predicted score comes from the adjusted mean of
number series, verbal attention, letter-pattern matching, phonological
processing, story recall, and visualization.
Intravariation Procedure
For other subtests, the predicted score is still based on the first 7,
but the subtest under observation is replaced by the most closely
related subtest . So normally, the oral vocabulary predicted score is
based on: number series, verbal attention, letter-pattern matching,
phonological processing, story recall, and visualization.
However, if you want to know the predicted score for concept
formation, it replaces number series (the other Gf test). So the
predicted score is based on oral vocabulary, verbal attention, letter-
pattern matching, phonological processing, story recall, and
visualization. It still uses the top 7 GIA tests as predictors.
Intravariation Procedure
One unique characteristic to the intravariation procedure
for the WJ-IV is it does not include the subtest being
measured. Most cognitive batteries include the subtest in
the predicted score, which may not be best because the
subtest youre looking at may bring the score either up or
down. The WJ-IV intravariation procedure ensures that
predicted score is not attenuated by the actual subtest
score.
Comparison Procedures
Comparison procedures are basically the discrepancy procedures you
can use. The various types of procedures will allow you to determine
whether you wish to use a straight cognitive/achievement
discrepancy, or you could look for a pattern of strengths and
weaknesses. The various procedures include:
GIA vs. Achievement
Gf-Gc vs. Achievement
Oral Language vs. Achievement
Scholastic Aptitude vs. Achievement
Academic Knowledge vs. Achievement
Caveat to the multitude of
comparison procedures
Avoid fishing expeditions. You get a lot of discrepancies-basically the
program will provide for you whatever you want-you get to choose.
Youre the clinician.
Remember, a Type I error means you rejected the null hypothesis when
you shouldnt have (you say theres a problem when there really isnt.) A
Type II error means you failed to reject the null hypothesis when you
should have rejected (you say theres no problem when there actually is.)
Remember also that the more comparisons you make, the more restrictive
you should make the discrepancy severity. The program defaults at +/-
1.5 SD. Consider adjusting if youre making multiple comparisons.
Comparison Procedures-GIA
This procedure uses the GIA to predict the achievement
scores in each area. A discrepancy means that the
achievement score is significantly higher or lower than
predicted using the GIA.
Comparison Procedures-Gf-Gc
This procedure uses the Gf-Gc composite to predict the
achievement scores in each area. A discrepancy means
that the achievement score is significantly higher or lower
than predicted using the Gf-Gc. Consider using the Gf-Gc
composite if you believe that the actual disability is a
short-term memory or processing speed deficit and youre
concerned that the GIA could be attenuated by the verbal
attention or letter-pattern matching subtests.
Comparison Procedure-Oral
Language
This uses the Oral Language Composite as the basis for
comparing OL to Achievement. You may have an
individual with appropriate oral language skills but
achievement deficits.
Comparison Procedures-Scholastic
Aptitude vs. Achievement
The Scholastic Aptitude (SAPT) was called Predicted Achievement in
the WJ-III. It uses the cognitive tests that are most related to the
achievement tests to predict the achievement test.
The utility of this cluster is when youre looking for consistency-
discrepancy. If certain cognitive skills are bringing down achievement
and achievement is actually brought down-you have consistency.
Discussion question: If youre using the scholastic aptitude
comparison procedure and youre looking for a pattern of strengths
and weaknesses, would you be looking for a discrepancy or the
absence of a discrepancy to detect a problem?
Regarding Pattern of Strengths and
Weaknesses
The WJ-IV presents with utility in determining PSW. At the
intravariation level, you will see which areas are significantly
different from each other.
There are many who view a true PSW as cognitive weaknesses that
relate to academic weaknesses and cognitive strengths that do not
relate to academic weaknesses.
The GIA and Gf-Gc composite will identify skills not attenuated by
Gwm or Gs to help predict achievement. The SAPT will actually
identify subtests that predict achievement to be low. To that end, this
framework can be utilized with the WJ.
Questions on the WJ-COG?
Quick note about WJ-Oral
Language

Subtests: Clusters:

Picture Vocabulary Oral Language


Understanding Directions
Oral Comprehension Sound Blending Broad Oral Language
SegmentationRetrieval Fluency Oral Expression
Rapid Picture Naming Sound Listening Comprehension
Awareness
Sentence Repetition Spanish Phonetic Coding
Subtests Speed of Lexical Access
Focus on Tests of Achievement
Psychometricsbriefly
Reliability-The same goals were set (.90 for clusters and .
80 for subtests). Median reliabilities were above .80 for
all subtests. All cluster scores were above .90.
Validity (K-TEA II):
Broad Reading-Reading Composite-.92
Broad Math-Math-.91
Broad Writing-Written Language-.84
Clusters-Test of Achievement-
Reading
Reading (Was Brief Reading) (Letter-Word ID and Passage Comp)-
Broad Reading (Same as above but also Sentence Reading Fluency)
Basic Reading Skills (LWID and Word Attack)
Reading Comprehension (Passage Comp and Reading Recall
(Reading Vocab creates Reading Comp ext.)
Reading Fluency (Sentence Reading Fluency and Oral Reading)
Reading Rate (Sentence Reading Fluency and Word Reading
Fluency)
Clusters-Test of Achievement-
Math
Mathematics (Was Brief Math) (Calculation and Applied
Problems)
Broad Mathematics (Same as above but also Math Facts
Fluency)
Math Calculation Skills (Calculation and Math Facts
Fluency)
Math Problem Solving (Applied Problems and Number
Matrices)
Clusters-Test of Achievement-
Writing
Written Language (was Brief Writing) (Spelling and
Writing Samples)
Broad Written Language (Same as above but includes
Sentence Writing Fluency)
Basic Writing Skills (Spelling and Editing)
Written Expression (Writing Samples and Sentence
Writing Fluency)
Think of the past clustersdid
anyone see anything interesting?
How about IDEA areas at the cluster level?!
Cross-Domain Clusters
Academic Skills
Think of your basic skills. These include LWID, Calculation, and
Spelling.
Academic Fluency
Think of how efficiently you perform yours skills. These include sentence
reading fluency, sentence writing fluency, and math facts fluency.
Academic Applications
Think of the final product. These include applied problems, writing
samples, and passage comprehension.
Changes from the WJ-III:
Subtests moved
Story Recall-Moved to the COG
Understanding Directions-Moved to the OL
Picture Vocabulary-Moved to the OL
Sound Awareness-Moved to the OL (except substitution,
which was moved to Phonological Awareness in the COG)
Changes from the WJ-III:
Voted Off the Island

Story Recall-Delayed
Punctuation and Capitalization
Quantitative Concepts (second halfnumber series
moved to the COG)
Selective Testing Table
WJ-ACH Subtests
Letter-Word Identification
Similar to the WJ-III. Examinee begins with letters and
sounds and then moves into word identification.
Loads on the Reading, Broad Reading, Basic Reading
Skills, and Academic Skills clusters.
Has a median reliability of .92 for ages 5-19 and .94 for
adults.
Applied Problems
Similar to the WJ-III (though I do not think they have pay
phones anymore). Examinee listens to word problems.
Loads on the clusters of Mathematics, Broad
Mathematics, Math Problem Solving, and Academic
Applications.
Has a median reliability of .91 for ages 5-19 and .92 for
adults.
Spelling
Like the WJ-III. Examinee begins with basic line
formation, then letters, and finally words.
Loads on the Written Language, Broad Written Language,
Basic Writing Skills, and Academic Skills Cluster.
Has a median reliability of .91 for ages 5-19 and .93 for
adults.
Passage Comprehension
Much like the WJ-III. Examinee begins with basic
rebuses, moves to pictures to tell about words, and finally
engages in cloze reading sentences.
Loads on the Reading, Broad Reading, Reading
Comprehension, and Academic Applications clusters.
Has a median reliability of .89 for ages 5-19 and .91 for
adults.
Calculation
Much like the WJ-III. Examinee engages in various
computation problems.
Loads on the Mathematics, Broad Mathematics, Math
Calculation Skills, and Academic Skills clusters.
Has a median reliability of .93 for ages 5-19 and also for
adults.
Writing Samples
Much like the WJ-III. Examinee writes sentences to
examiner-directed prompts.
Must use the manual to score. Follow manual closely for
scoring, particularly .5 responses.
Loads on the Written Language, Broad Written Language,
Written Expression, and Academic Applications clusters.
Has a median reliability of .90 for ages 5-19 and .89 for
adults.
Word Attack
Much like the WJ-III. Begin with basic skills and then
move to decoding nonsense words. Moved to the standard
battery.
Loads on the Basic Reading Skills and Phoneme-
Grapheme Knowledge clusters.
Has a median reliability of .90 for ages 5-19 and .93 for
adults.
Oral ReadingNew!
New to the WJ-IV. Its a measure of reading fluency but
not as much about how quickly one reads but how fluently,
which includes prosody.
Examinee reads sentences out loud and examiner scores
for accuracy. Optional scoring includes
mispronunciations, hesitations, transpositions, etc.
Loads on the Reading Fluency cluster.
Has a median reliability of .97 for ages 5-19 and .95 for
adults.
A note about the fluency
subtests
Sentence reading fluency, math facts fluency, and
sentence writing fluency are at the end of stimulus book 1.

Although the subtests have been grouped together, the


authors recommend that one does not test one fluency test
after another, but rather intersperses them throughout the
assessment.
Sentence Reading Fluency
Was once called Reading Fluency. Like the WJ-III but no
more pink milk! Examinees read sentences and quickly
decide whether the answer is true or false.
Loads on the Broad Reading, Reading Fluency, Reading
Rate, and Academic Fluency Clusters.
Has a test-retest reliability of .92 for ages 7-11, .91 for 14-
17 and .93 for adults.
Math Facts Fluency
Was called Math Fluency on the WJ-III. Examinees solve
computation problems as quickly as possible with
changing operations.
Loads on the Broad Mathematics, Math Calculation Skills,
and Academic Fluency clusters.
Has test-retest reliabilities of .95 for ages 7-11, .97 for 14-
17 and .95 for adults.
Sentence Writing Fluency
Was called writing fluency in the WJ-III. Examinees take
three words and combine them into sentences. Subtest is
now 5 minutes rather than 7.
Loads on the Broad Written Language, Written
Expression, and Academic Fluency Clusters
Median test-Retest reliabilities are .73 for ages 7-11, .76
for 14-17 and .88 for adults.
Reading Recall
New to the WJ-IV. Like story recall, but instead of hearing
the story, the examinee reads the story and, when done,
must retell the story.
Loads on the Reading Comprehension cluster and is also a
measure of meaningful memory.
Median reliability of .97 for ages 5-19 and .86 for adults.
New!
Number Matrices
Moved from the WJ-III Diagnostic Supplement. Like
number series, only this time the examinee must solve the
number grids both horizontally and vertically.
Loads on the Math Problem Solving Cluster.
Has a median reliability of .91 for ages 5-19 and .93 for
adults.
Editing
Like the WJ-III except this time no words can be read to
the examinee. Examinee is shown sentences with an error
in them and the examinee corrects the error.
Loads on the Basic Writing Skills cluster.
Has a median reliability of .90 for age 5-19 and .92 for
adults.
New!
Word Reading Fluency
New subtest. Almost like decision speed from the WJ-III
COG except instead of pictures, the examinee circles
words that go together as quickly as possible.
Loads on the Reading Rate Cluster.
Has test-retest reliabilities of .92 for ages 7-11, .91 for 14-
17 and .93 for adults.
Spelling of Sounds
Like the WJ-III only this timethe examinee cannot get
partial credit. The examinee hears a nonsense word (like
blick) and must write the word the way it sounds. Its the
only subtest that uses the audio recording.
This subtest loads on the Phoneme-Grapheme
Relationships Cluster.
Has a median reliability of .88 for ages 5-19 and .92 for
adults.
Reading Vocabulary
Similar to the WJ-III but is now an optional subtest for
reading comprehension. Examinee provides synonyms
and antonyms of words (no more analogies).
Loads on the Reading Comprehension-Extended Cluster.
Has a median reliability of .85 for ages 5-19 and .92 for
adults.
Science, Social Studies and
Humanities
Like the WJ-III, only theyre separate subtests. Together,
they create the Academic Knowledge Cluster (which can
be used for a Comparison Procedure.)
Median reliabilities range from a low of .76 in science for
ages 5-19 to a high of .94 for humanities for adults.
Intravariation Procedures
Like the WJ-IV COG, variation procedures are based on the first 6 subtests
(LWID, App Prob, Spelling, Pass Comp, Calculation, and Writing Samples).
Again, each subtest is pulled out and compared to the weighted average of
the other 5.
Additionally-you get other important composites such as Academic Skills
(your low level skills-LWID, Calc, Spelling), fluency (rate of skill-Sent. Read
Fluency, Math Facts Flu, and Sent Writing Fluency) and applications (final
product-passage comprehension, applied problems, writing samples). This
will help you see where there are strengths and weaknesses for your student
and determine what, if anything really pops out.
Comparison Procedures
Like the WJ-IV COG-theres an extra comparison
procedure and its the Academic Knowledge/Achievement
cluster.
You can get this comparison by giving only the WJ-IV ACH.
Its a way to get at those students who have strong a
strong content knowledge base (Sci, SS, and Humanities)
but struggle in reading, writing, or math.
QUESTIONS????
THANK YOU!!!!!!