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ELECTRICAL

ENERGY
WHAT IS
ELECTRICITY?
Bohr Model of Atom

In atoms electrons
are the carriers of
negative charge.

while protons Carry a


positive charge.
WHAT IS
ELECTRICTY?
A charge is a
property of matter
much like mass, or
volume.

Opposites attract
and like charges
repel.
WHAT IS
ELECTRICITY?
Electricity is the movement or flow
of charged particles (electrons)
through a system.
THREE ELECTRICAL
VARIABLE S
1.Current
2.Resistance
3.Voltage
CURRE
NT (I)
Symbol: I
SI Unit: Ampere (Amp)
Current: The movement
of charge particles (e-)
through a cross section of
conductive material per
unit time.
Resista
nce (R)
Symbol: R
SI Unit: Ohm ()
Resistance : The
opposition to the passage
of electric current in a
circuit.
Voltage
(V)
Symbol: V
SI Unit: Volt
Voltage: The difference
between the potential
energy or charge, at two
points in a circuit.
OHMs
LAW
OHMs
LAW Voltage
V = I x R

Current Resistance
I = V R R = V I
Would This Work?
Would This Work?
Would This Work?
The Central Concept:
Closed Circuit
Circuit diagram
Engineers usually draw electric circuits using
symbols;

cell lamp switch wires


Ohms Law Practise

Calculate the current that flows through this light bulb.


Simple
Circuits Series circuit
All in a row
1 path for electricity
1 light goes out and
the circuit is broken

Parallel circuit
Many paths for
electricity
1 light goes out and
the others stay on
Digital Multimeter
A multimeter combines these
functions into one tool.

An ammeter measures
current

A voltmeter measures the


potential difference (voltage)
between two points

An ohmmeter measures
resistance
Measuring Current
Ammeters are always placed in
series with the component being
measured.

A
Measuring current
.

A A

SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT


Measuring voltage

V
Measuring voltage

V
V
SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT
Measuring current
SERIES CIRCUIT

current is the same 2A 2A


at all points in the
circuit. 2A

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

2A 2A
current is shared
between the 1A
components
1A
fill in the missing ammeter readings.

4A
? 3A
? 3A

1A
?
4A
?

4A 1A

1A
?
The circuit is no longer complete, therefore current can not flow

The voltage decreases because the current is decreased

and the resistance increases.


The current remains the same. The total resistance drops in a
parallel circuit as more bulbs are added

The current increases.


Series and Parallel Circuits
Series Circuits
only one end of each component is connected
e.g. Christmas tree lights

Parallel Circuits
both ends of a component are connected
e.g. household lighting
copy the following circuits and fill in the
missing ammeter readings.

4A
? 3A
? 3A

1A
?
4A
?

4A 1A

1A
?
measuring voltage
Different cells produce different voltages. The
bigger the voltage supplied by the cell, the bigger the
current.

Unlike an ammeter, a voltmeter is connected across


the components

Scientist usually use the term Potential Difference


(pd) when they talk about voltage.
measuring voltage

V V
V
series circuit
voltage is shared between the components

3V

1.5V 1.5V
parallel circuit
voltage is the same in all parts of the circuit.

3V

3V

3V
measuring current & voltage

copy the following circuits on the next two


slides.

complete the missing current and voltage


readings.

remember the rules for current and voltage


in series and parallel circuits.
measuring current & voltage

a)
6V
4A A

V V

A
measuring current & voltage

b)
6V
4A A
V

A
answers

a) b)
6V
6V 4A 4A
6V
4A 4A

3V 3V 2A

4A 6V

2A
Voltage, Current, and
Power
One Volt is a Joule per Coulomb (J/C)
One Amp of current is one Coulomb per second (6.24
x10^18 electrons/second).
If I have one volt (J/C) and one amp (C/s), then multiplying
gives Joules per second (J/s)
this is power: J/s = Watts
So the formula for electrical power is just:

More work is done per unit time the higher the voltage
and/or the higher the current
P = VI: power = voltage current