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WATER

STUDENTS NAME : KUHAN KOVALAN (2E)


TEACHERS NAME : ENCIK AHMAD
ZULKHAIRI
SCIENCE ASSIGNMENT : BAND 6 SCIENCE (PPT)
Topics of
Discussion:

1. Water
Pollution

2. Water
Purification

3. Ways To Save
1.Water
Pollution
Water
pollution
defined as
presence of
solid, liquid or
gaseous
contaminants
in such
concentration
that may alter
the quality of
1.Water
Pollution
Water pollution
is defined as
the addition to
water of an
excess material
or heat that is
harmful to the
living organism
or which
impairs the
beneficial use of
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources Nutrients Pollution
Surface water
pollution
Oxygen Depleting
Ground water
pollution
Microbiological
Suspended Matter
Chemical Water
Pollution
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Nutrients Pollution
Some wastewater, fertilizers and sewage
contain high levels of nutrients.
If they end up in water bodies, they
encourage algae and weed growth in the
water.
This will make the water undrinkable, and
even clog filters.
Too much algae will also use up all the
oxygen in the water, and other water
organisms in the water will die out of
oxygen starvation.
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Surface water pollution

Surface water includes natural


water found on the earth's surface,
like rivers, lakes, lagoons and
oceans.

Hazardous substances coming into


contact with this surface water,
dissolving or mixing physically with
the water can be called surface
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Oxygen Depleting
Water bodies have micro-organisms:
aerobic and anaerobic organisms.
When too much biodegradable matter
(things that easily decay) end up in water,
it encourages more microorganism
growth, and they use up more oxygen in
the water.
If oxygen is depleted, aerobic organisms
die, and anaerobic organisms grow more
to produce harmful toxins such as
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Ground water pollution
When humans apply pesticides and
chemicals to soils, they are washed
deep into the ground by rainwater.
This gets to underground water,
causing pollution in underground.
This means when we dig wells and
bore holes to get water from
underground, it needs to be checked
for ground water pollution.
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Microbiological
In many communities in the world,
people drink
untreated water (straight
from a river or stream).
Sometimes there is natural pollution
caused by
microorganisms like viruses,
bacteria and protozoa.
This natural pollution can cause fishes
and other water life to die. They can also
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollution and Their
Sources
Suspended Matter
Some pollutants (substances,
particles and chemicals) do not easily
dissolve in water.

This kind of material is called


particulate matter. Some suspended
pollutants later settle under the water
body.

This can harm and even kill aquatic


organisms that live at the bottom of
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollutants and Their
Sources
Chemical Water Pollution
Many industries and farmers work
with chemicals that end up in water;
common with Point-source Pollution.
These include chemicals that are
used to control weeds, insects and
pests.
Metals and solvents from industries
can pollute water bodies.
These are poisonous to many forms of
aquatic life and may slow their
1.Water
Pollution
1.1Types of Water Pollutants and Their
Sources
Oil Spillage

Oil spills usually have


only a localized effect on
wildlife but can spread for
miles.
The oil can cause the
death to many fish and
get stuck to the feathers
of seabirds causing them
1.Water
Pollution
1.2 Effects of Water pollution on living
things
1.Water
Pollution
1.2 Effects of Water pollution on living
things
Human Health

We all drink water that comes from a source: this may


be a lake or local river.
In countries that have poor screening and purification
practices, people often get water-borne disease
outbreaks such as cholera and tuberculosis.
In developed countries, even where there are better
purification methods, people still suffer from the health
effects of water pollution.
Take toxins emitted by algae growth for instance: this
can cause stomach aches and rashes. Excess nitrogen in
drinking water also pose serious risks to infants.
1.Water
Pollution
1.2 Effects of Water pollution on living
things
Ecosystem
Nutrient pollution from upstream (creeks and streams)
often flow downhill and even travel miles into other
larger water bodies.
The effect is that, it breeds algae growth and causes the
growth of many more water organism.
This algae attack affects fish and other aquatic animals
by absorbing and reducing their oxygen supply; Algae
growth also clogs fish gills.
Naturally, the order of ecosystems in that water are
affected negatively, as the destruction or introduction of
1.Water
Pollution
1.2 Effects of Water pollution on living
things
Deaths of animals
Animals, including water animals die when water is
poisoned for various reasons; Other animals are
stressed and their populations are endangered.
That water pollution caused a lot of damage and
deaths of many animals; Over 8,000 animals were
reported dead just 6 months after the spill, including
many that are already on the endangered species list.
Immediate impact on the wildlife includes oil-coated
birds and sea turtles, mammal ingestion of oil, and
dead or dying deep sea coral. Animals are also affected
by solid waste thrown into water bodies, as they harm
them in many ways.
1.Water
Pollution
1.2 Effects of Water pollution on living
things
Economic Cost
There are some real financial implications that will
result from water pollution.
It can cost a lot more to purify drinking water that
takes its source from nutrient polluted water bodies.
Fishing stock is affected negatively when there is a
depletion of oxygen.
Consumers are also weary of fish from these sources
and tend to stay away from them, costing fisheries to
lose revenue.
In places where there are water activities or sports,
lots of money is spent to clean up the water from
algae blooms and others.
1.Water
Pollution
1.3 ways to control Water pollution
1.Water
Pollution
1.3 ways to control Water pollution
Government
Impose strict Laws that can help
minimize water pollution.
These laws are usually directed to
industries, hospitals, schools, and market
areas on how to dispose, treat and
manage sewage.
Develop and maintain efficient waste and
sewage treatment which designed to
minimize pollution of water bodies.
Educate communities ways to control
1.Water
Pollution
1.3 ways to control Water pollution
Individual

Never throw rubbish away anyhow; always


look for correct
waste bins.
Use water wisely: not keep tap running when not use
and reduce the water use in washing and bathing, this
will reduce dirty water treatment.
Do not throw chemical, oil, paints and medicines down
in sink drain or toilets.
Use more environment save cleaning liquids for
household usage.
1.Water
Pollution
1.4 ways to conserve and preserve
water and its quality
Industries have their policies and technology to achieve
their business objective which should preserve the quality
of water.
Companies that responsible for water pollution should
pay compensation for damage caused.
Construction sites should have strategies to prevent
water pollution.
Biological method can be used to control pests.
In agricultural sector, steps should be taken to reduce
the use of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers.
Environmental education should be incorporated into
school curriculum for increase community awareness and
self responsibilities to preserve water and its quality.
2.Water
Purification

Water
purification is
the removal of
contaminants
from raw water
to produce
drinking water
that is pure
enough for
2.Water
Purification
2.1 methods of water purification

Filtration

Distillation

Boiling

Chlorination
2.Water
Purification
2.1 methods of water purification
Filtration
Filtration is removes the suspended solid particles
such as clay and sand in the water.
The filtration process can be carried out by using sand
particles as a filter.
o This system uses layer of fine sand, coarse sand,
small stones and pebbles.
o The liquid that goes through the filter is called the
filtrate and solid material left behind in the filter is
called residue.
This method of purification does not remove
microorganisms and dissolved substances and
suspended particles.
Filtered water is unsafe for drinking.
2.Water METHODS OF WATER PURIFICATION

Purification
2.1 methods of water purification
Distillation
Distillation of water produces pure water. This
water is free from microorganisms, dissolved
substances and suspended particles.
Pure water that is produced through distillation is
called distilled water.
Distilled water is used to prepare chemical
solutions in laboratories and liquid medicine in
pharmacies. It is also used widely in food
industries and as battery water in car batteries.
2.Water Purification
METHODS OF WATER PURIFICATION

2.1 methods of water


Boiling purification
Boiling can kill most of the
microorganisms.
Boiling does not remove any suspended
particles and substances in the water.
Chlorination
This process usually used in water purification
plants and swimming pools.
This method used to treat large quantities of
water.
3.Ways to Save
Water
1. Water conservation

2. Buy recycled-paper products

3. Water your lawn early in morning /evening

4. Uses a lower setting on your dishwasher

5. Install faucet aerators

6. Bring your water with you

7. Do not waste water in daily use


THANK
YOU