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Heat Transfer/Heat Exchanger

How is the heat transfer?


Mechanism of Convection
Applications .
Mean fluid Velocity and Boundary and their effect on the rate of heat
transfer.
Fundamental equation of heat transfer
Logarithmic-mean temperature difference.
Heat transfer Coefficients.
Heat flux and Nusselt correlation
Simulation program for Heat Exchanger
How is the heat transfer?
Heat can transfer between the surface of a solid conductor
and the surrounding medium whenever temperature
gradient exists.
Conduction
Convection
Natural convection
Forced Convection
Natural and forced Convection
Natural convection occurs whenever heat flows
between a solid and fluid, or between fluid
layers.
As a result of heat exchange
Change in density of effective fluid layers taken
place, which causes upward flow of heated
fluid.
If this motion is associated with heat transfer mechanism
only, then it is called Natural Convection
Forced Convection

If this motion is associated by mechanical means such as


pumps, gravity or fans, the movement of the fluid is
enforced.
And in this case, we then speak of Forced convection.
Heat Exchangers
A device whose primary purpose is the transfer of energy
between two fluids is named a Heat Exchanger.
Applications of Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
prevent car engine
overheating and
increase efficiency
Heat exchangers are
used in Industry for
heat transfer

Heat
exchangers are
used in AC and
furnaces
The closed-type exchanger is the most popular one.
One example of this type is the Double pipe exchanger.

In this type, the hot and cold fluid streams do not come
into direct contact with each other. They are separated by
a tube wall or flat plate.
Principle of Heat Exchanger
First Law of Thermodynamic: Energy is conserved.
0 0 0 0
dE
dt



in
.hin m
m
out

.hout q

ws e
generated

Qh A.m h .C ph .Th
m .h m .h
Qc A.m c .C pc .Tc in out

Control Volume COLD

Qh
HOT
Thermal Boundary Layer
Cross Section Area
THERMAL
BOUNDARY LAYER Region III: Solid
Energy moves from hot fluid Cold Liquid
to a surface by convection, Convection
through the wall by
conduction, and then by NEWTONS LAW OF
convection from the surface to CCOLING
the cold fluid. dqx hc .Tow Tc .dA
Th Ti,wall

To,wall

Tc

Region I : Hot Liquid- Q hot Q cold


Solid Convection
NEWTONS LAW OF
CCOLING
dqx hh .Th Tiw .dA Region II : Conduction
dT
Across Copper Wall
dqx k.
FOURIERS LAW dr
Velocity distribution and boundary layer
When fluid flow through a circular tube of uniform cross-
suction and fully developed,
The velocity distribution depend on the type of the flow.
In laminar flow the volumetric flowrate is a function of the
radius.
r D/2

V u2rdr
r 0

V=volumetricflowrate
u=averagemeanvelocity
In turbulent flow, there is no such distribution.

The molecule of the flowing fluid which adjacent to the


surface have zero velocity because of mass-attractive
forces. Other fluid particles in the vicinity of this layer,
when attempting to slid over it, are slow down by viscous
forces.
Boundary
layer

r
Accordingly the temperature gradient is larger at the wall
and through the viscous sub-layer, and small in the
turbulent core.
Tubewall

qx hAT heating Metal


Warm fluid
wall

qx hA(Tw T)

Twh
h
k
cold fluid Twc

cooling qx A(Tw T)
Tc
The reason for this is
1) Heat must transfer through the boundary layer by
conduction.
2) Most of the fluid have a low thermal conductivity (k)
3) While in the turbulent core there are a rapid moving
eddies, which they are equalizing the temperature.
U = The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient [W/m.K]

qx hhot .Th Tiw .A Th Tiw


qx
Region I : Hot Liquid hh .Ai
Solid Convection
ro
kcopper .2L qx .ln
qx ri
Region II : Conduction r To,wall Ti,wall

Across Copper Wall
ln o
ri k copper .2L
qx
Region III : Solid
qx hc To,wall Tc Ao To,wall Tc
Cold Liquid Convection hc .Ao


+
qx ro
Th Tc ln
1 r
i 1
R1 R2 R3 Th Tc qx
hh .Ai k copper .2L hc .Ao

qx U.A.Th Tc
1
ro
ro . ln
1 ro r
i 1 r r
U U
A.R hhot .ri k copper .ri hcold i o



Calculating U using Log Mean Temperature
dqh m h .C ph .dTh d (T ) dTh dTc
Hot Stream : dqh dqc
T Th Tc d (T )
m .C h m .C c
Cold Stream: dqc m c .C .dTcc
p
h p c p

dq dqhot dqcold d (T ) U .T .dA.


1

1
m .C h m .C c
dq U .T .dA h p c p

T2 d (T ) Th Tc A2
T1 T
U .
qh
. dA
qc A1
T2 d (T ) 1 1 A
U . . 2 dA

T1 T m .C h m .C c A1
h p c p
T2
ln
U . A.

Th Tc U . A Thin Thout Tcin Tcout
T1 q q
T2 T1
q U .A
T2
ln
Log Mean Temperature T1
Log Mean Temperature evaluation
T2 T1 m h .C ph . T3 T6 m c .C pc . T7 T10
TLn U
ln
T2
A.TLn A.TLn
T1
COUNTER CURRENT FLOW
1 CON CURRENT FLOW 2 1 2
T3 T4 T6
T6
T1 T1
T2
Wall
T7 T2
T8
T9
A T10

A A
T10
T1 T2
T4 T5 T10

T2
T3 T6 T1 T4 T5

T3 T6

T8 T9
T7
ParallelFlow
T8 T9

T1 T T T3 T7
T7
in in
h c CounterCurrentFlow

T1 T Tcout T3 T7
h
in

T2 Thout Tcout T6 T10


T2 Thout Tcin T6 T10
q hh Ai Tlm 1 2

T3 T4 T6
(T T ) (T6 T2 ) T6
Tlm 3 1 T1
(T T ) Wall
ln 3 1
(T6 T2 ) T2
T7 T8
T9
T10

A
q hc Ao Tlm
(T1 T7 ) (T2 T10 )
Tlm
(T1 T7 )
ln
(T2 T10 )
DIMENSIONLESS ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE A HEAT EXCHANGER

Nu f (Re,Pr, L / D, b / o )
h.D v.D.
C p .
k k

Further Simplification: Nu a.Re b .Pr c


D
Nu
Can Be Obtained from 2 set of experiments

One set, run for constant Pr
And second set, run for constant Re

h
k
q A(Tw T )

Empirical Correlation
For laminar flow
Nu = 1.62 (Re*Pr*L/D)
For turbulent flow
0.14
b
Nu Ln 0.026. Re . Pr
0.8 1/ 3
.
o

Good To Predict within 20%


Conditions: L/D > 10
0.6 < Pr < 16,700
Re > 20,000
Experimental
Apparatus
Switch for concurrent Temperature
and countercurrent Indicator
flow

Hot Flow
Cold Flow Rotameters
rotameter

Heat Temperature
Controller Controller

Two copper concentric pipes


Inner pipe (ID = 7.9 mm, OD = 9.5 mm, L = 1.05 m)
Outer pipe (ID = 11.1 mm, OD = 12.7 mm)

Thermocouples placed at 10 locations along exchanger, T1 through T10


Theoretical trend
y = 0.8002x 3.0841 Examples of Exp. Results Theoretical trend
y = 0.026x

Experimental trend
y = 0.0175x 4.049

Experimental trend
y = 0.7966x 3.5415

Theoretical trend
y = 0.3317x + 4.2533

Experimental Nu = 0.0175Re0.7966Pr0.4622

Theoretical Nu = 0.026Re0.8Pr0.33

Experimental trend
y = 0.4622x 3.8097
Effect of core tube velocity on the local and
over all Heat Transfer coefficients

35000
-
Heat Transfer Coefficient Wm K
-2

30000

25000

20000 hi (W/m2K)
ho (W/m2K)
U (W/m2K)
15000

10000

5000

0
0 1 2 3 4
-1
Velocity in the core tube (ms )