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Listening and Critical

Thinking
Listening
Pendengaran
"Tindakan menerima suara"
MENDENGARKAN
"Proses aktif menerima, membangun makna
dari, dan menanggapi pesan lisan dan / atau
nonverbal. Ini melibatkan kemampuan untuk
menyimpan informasi, serta bereaksi
bersungguh-sungguh dan / atau apresiasi
pesan lisan dan / atau nonverbal " (p. 111)
Listening
WHY WOULD I SAY THIS?
To listen, it is important that you hear,
but not necessarily.

You cant listen to the chirp of a bird.


Can you appreciate the chirp of a bird?
The Listening Process

1) Attention
2) Working memory
3) Short-term memory
4) Long-term memory
The Listening Process
1. Attention
Selective Attention The sustained
focus we give stimuli
Focusing on what we think is important.

Automatic Attention Instinctive


focus
Attention that happens when we notice a
change in our environment.
The Listening Process
2. Working Memory
the part of our consciousness that
interprets and assigns meaning to
stimuli we pay attention to (p. 112)
(Momentary understandings)

Example: Reading
Example: Stories
The Listening Process
3. Short-term Memory
a temporary storage place for
information (p. 113)

Limited to 7 (+/- 2) bits of


information.
Telephone numbers
Street addresses
A sentence or so.
The Listening Process
4. Long-term memory
permanent storage place for
information

Schema
organizational filing systems for our
thoughts
Webs of information
What is a nerd? house?
Triggered by a couple of concepts.
Stereotypes?
Schema for an Office.
Four Different Types of Listening

Active
Empathic

Critical

Enjoyment
Active Listening
Active listening
Involved listening with a purpose (p.
115).

Four steps:
1) Listening carefully by using all available
senses.
2) Paraphrasing what is heard both
mentally and verbally
3) Checking understanding(s) to ensure
accuracy.
4) Providing feedback. (answering)
Active Listening Practice
1) Pick a buddy in your group.
OU-Chubu Chubu-OU

2) Tell them what you did this morning.

3) Ask questions.

3) Paraphrase what was said.


Empathic Listening
Empathic Listening
A form of active listening in which you
attempt to understand the other person
(p. 115)

Being fully engaged In the moment.


Attempting to understand another persons

worldview as if it were your own.


Empathic Listening in
Relationships

Ask for additional information


Vary verbal responses

Give affirmative and affirming

responses
Restate/Paraphrase what was said
Critical Listening
Critical listening
Challenging the speakers message by
evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness,
and utility (p. 116).

Critical thinking takes critical listening.


Critical Thinking
What are the dangers of not thinking
critically?

Arguments
Something the speaker is trying to
prove.

We are continuously being convinced of


something.
Critical Listening
Source credibility
The extent to which the speaker is
perceived as competent to make the
claims he or she is making (p. 120).
Critical Listening/Thinking
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b
eJ9yJpR_DA&feature=related

The kid is thinking critically about


what Bill OReilly is saying.
Critical Listening
Information literacy
An individual must recognize when
information is needed and have the
ability to locate, evaluate, and use
effectively the information needed (p.
127) to evaluate a claim or argument.

Search engines
http://www.factcheck.org/
.com .org .edu
Listening for Enjoyment
Enjoyment listening
seeking out situations involving
relaxing, fun, or emotionally stimulating
information (p. 116).

Music, friends, nature


Critical Thinking
We are constantly receiving
information.
Friends
Classmates
Advertisements
Society

We need to critically think about the


information we come in contact with.
Questions???