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Sensory Processes

Behavior is
fundamentally an
adaptation to the
environment under
sensory control
The Sensory Systems
Distance Receptors

Eye (Visual Sensation)

Ear (Auditory Sensation)
Nose (Olfactory Sensation)
General Conditions of Sensory

Every sensory experiences involves

the stimulation of the receptor. This
means the application of stimulus. A
stimulus is anything inside or outside
the body which initiates activity of
some form of radiant, chemical or
other energy.
General Characteristics of
Sense Receptors
Absolute threshold
o Limen-Energy strong enough to produce
a response.
o Subliminal-Energy too weak to produce
a conscious response.
Difference threshold

Sensory adaptation- ability to adjust to

a particular stimulus.
Sense of Sight (Visual
The sense organ for our visual
sensation is the eye.

Light waves- stimulus to which the eye

is sensitive
Millimicron- the unit of measurement
for light waves
The structure and function of
the eye
Cornea- a convex transparent
membrane that covers the front of the
eye. It is supposed to serve both a
protective and a refraction function.
Aqueous humor- the liquid behind the
Pupil- an opening in the iris which
regulates the light entering the eye.
The function and structure of
the eye
Iris- the part of the eye that gives its
Lens- this is where the light rays pass
through after passing through the
iris. These lens can be changed in
curvature by the ciliary muscles in
order to focus the light rays into the
sensitive surface of the retina which
is the photo sensitive area of the eye.
The function and structure of
the eye
Vitreous humor- this
is where the light
rays must first pass
before getting to
the retina. As soon
as the light rays
reach the retina,
these are then
carried to the brain
by the optic nerve.
Photosensitive Cells
Cones- less conical in
shape, receptors for color,
they are located at the
focal point of clearest
vision, the fovea.
Rods- slender cells

plentiful in the pheripery

At the point where the nerve
leaves the eye, there are
neither rods nor cones.
This part is called the blind

Dark adaptation and brightness adaptation

- the processes of preparing the eye to see
under low illumination and high illumination.
Visual Acuity

Visual Acuity refers to sharpness of vision

which can be measured in terms of the
smallest object that can be seen at a
standard distance, or the greatest distance at
which a standardized object can be seen.
The snellen chart
Common visual defects

Hyperopia 0r Farsightedness- a condition

wherein the lens does not bulge out enough
for close vision, either because it is flexible or
because the muscles controlling its shape are
too weak, thereby causing the image to come
into focus behind the retina.
When farsightedness occurs with age, it is
called presbyopia.
Visual Defects
Myopia or
nearsightedness- the
condition when the lens
bulges out too far,
causing the image to
come into focus slightly
in front of the surface of
the retina.
Visual Defects

Astigmatism- the condition when the image

on the retina is distorted. The cornea is
irregular, as the cause. The left-right curve of
the cornea is sharper (or flatter) than the up-
down curve such that it produces clear vision
in other dimensions.
Visual Defects
Tunnel Vision- a
condition caused by a
concentric narrowing of
the field of vision so
that a person seems to
be looking through a
tunnel or pipe.
Visual Defects
Diplopia or double vision- is caused by the
muscular imbalance which permits light reflected
from one point to fall on noncorresponding
receptors in the two retinas so that two slightly
different images are transmitted to the brain.
Diplopia or double vision
Color Vision
Hues- variations of colors
Saturation- richness and purity of
Brightness- range of a color from
bright to dim.
Color blindness
Defect in color vision
totally color blind (monochromat)- all
colors are simply different shades of
black and white.
partially color blind (dichromat)- those
who have their vision for one or two of
the fundamental colors (red, green or
Trichromat- person with normal vision
a person with color
blindness can still
distinguish a traffic
signal by the
brightness and
position of the
Ishihara Test for colorblindness
Visiual Patterns
Sense of Hearing (Auditory
The sense organ
for our sense of
hearing is the ear.
Sound waves- the
stimulus caused by
vibration of air
The 3 attributes of Sound
Frequency- refers to the number of
vibrations per second and it
determines the pitch of the sound.
The range of pitches that our ear can
respond to extends from 20- 22,000
vibrations per sound. Beyond these
limits, sounds are no longer audible
to the human ear.
The 3 attributes of sound
Intensity- refers to the amplitude of
the sound wave or the height of its
crests. If the crests are high, the
sound is intense; if the crests are
shallow, the sound is weak. The
same vibration can either be very
loud or very weak.
The 3 attributes of sound
Timbre- refers to the overtones
present in a sound in addition to the
fundamental tone.
When the string of a piano is struck,
for example, not only the main tones
called overtones will be produced. The
overtones produced impart its timbre
to a sound, hence, overtones make a
tone rich.
Structure and Function of
the ear
External or Outer Ear
Pinna- the cartileged projection of the
skull whose function is to catch the sound
waves. The sound waves caught by the
pinna enter at the external meatus which
is the hole where the pinna is attached to
the head. These sound waves travel down
the auditory canal to the eardrum or
tympanic membrane.
Structure and Function of
the ear
Middle Ear- a cavity filled with air. It is
connected to the throat by the Eustachian
tube which permits air pressure inside to
stay the same as in the outside. Found in
the middle air are 3 tiny bones.
malleus or hammer- attached to the
tympanic membrane. It passes the
vibrations, in turn, to the second small
bone called the incus or anvil.
Midde Ear
Incus- transmits the vibrations to the third
tiny bone called stapes or stirrups.
Stapes or Stirrups- transmits the
vibrations, directly to the oval window
which is part of the inner ear.
Inner Ear
Vestibular Portion- it has nothing to do with the
hearing but with balance.
Cochlea- snail-like with 2 turns. These two
parts of the inner ear are filled with fluids called
the endolymph.
The most important structure of the ear for
understanding sound is the basilar membrane. It
consists of many cells such as the Organ of Corti
which is situated near the inner edge of the
membrane toward the axis of the coil of the
Auditory Defects
Total deafness
Partial Deafness
Otitis Media-hearing impairment due to
infection of the middle ear.
Tone deafness-due to the inability of the
person to differentiate tones, although
there is nothing wrong with his hearing.
Sense of Smell (Olfactory

The organs involved in

our sense of smell,
the olfactory
receptors are located
at the top of the nasal
passage and just
below the olfactory
lobe which is part of
the brain.
Classification of Odors
Flowery ---Fragrant odor of certain flowers
Fruity- Ethereal--- Oranges
Spicy---All odors of spices
Resinous--- Odors of pine woods, sandals
Burnt or Smoky- smell of anything burning
Foul--- smell of decaying organic matter.
Sense of Taste
Sense of Touch
Pain Sensation are classified in to
two ways
Quick sharp pain or
pricking pain
dull lasting pain
Sense of Active Movement

(kinesthetic sensation)
Other sense movement is made
possible by receptors in the -



Tabes dorsalis - disease caused

by the damaged tracks along the
receptors to the brain
Sense of Passive movement

(Vestibular Sensation)
The Vestibular portion is composed
of three parts:

semi-circular canals

Motion sickness - the unusual stimulation

of the semi-circular canals and vestibule.
(seasickness, airsickness, swing sickness)
Sense of Internal Bodily

(organic sensation)
Organic sensation is closely related
to biological drives and emotions.
Such experiences as feelings of thirst,
hunger, nausea, bladder and bowel
tension, sexual cravings, thrills,
suffocation, and feeling of fullness are
associated with the activities of
internal structure.
Perception giving meaning to a
stimulus received by the sense
Sense Modality Threshold
Vision a candle flame seen at 30 miles
on a dark clear night.
Hearing the tick of a watch under quiet
conditions at 20 feet.
Taste one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons
of water.
Smell one drop of perfume diffused into
the entire volume of a six-room apartment
Touch wing of fly falling on your cheek
from a distance of 1 cm.
Development of Perception

Nativists insist that perception is

inherent or inborn.
Empiricists - insist that infant is
incapable of perception at the start &
learns to perceive things in the
process of development.
Stimulus Characteristics External
-Change of stimulus
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -a
--------- ---- ------------ -----b
Organization in Perception

Perceptual Grouping & Patterning

00000000 0XVU0
In six groups: In ter con ti nen tal
In two groups: Intercon tinental
In one group: Intercontinental
-Figure & Ground
-Visual Illusions
Characteristics of the
Past Experience
Physical Characteristics of the
Interests & Attitudes
Perception & Social
Culture & Society
Ex. Muslims avoid pork because of their
religious doctrines while Christian on the
other hand make delectable dishes out of
Social Suggestion
Ex. A beauty queen advertises a a certain
brand beauty product.
Types of Perception
Perception of Objects Perception involves the
interaction of many senses. This applies to the
perception of events.
Object perception is developmental
Perceptual constancies
Relatively stable or constant
Object constancy
Brightness & Color constancy
Shape Constancy
Size Constancy
Location Constancy
Perception of Depth
Retinal Disparity
Monocular Cues
Geometry of Perspective or Linear
Light & Shadow
Binocular cues
Perception of Movement
Real Motion
Apparent Motion
Autokinetic Movement
Induced Movement
Perception of Time
Perception of persons
Special Types of Perception - ESP
Applied Perception
Perception in Advertising
Sumliminal Advertising
Perceptual defense mechanism
Perception in Advertising
Product & Consumer response
Value Indicators
Perception in Public Markets
Visual Illusion in Clothing
Perception of Cosmetic Illusions

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