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Molecular

Organization of the
Cell Membrane
Reported by: Bautista, JD
Objectives:
At the end of the report, the students should be
able to:
Better understand the importance of the cell
membrane
Learn the structure & chemical composition of
the cell membrane
Understand the molecular organization of the
cell membrane
DEFINITION OF THE
CELL MEMBRANE
DEFINITION OF THE CELL
MEMBRANE
Cell membrane C. Nageli & C. Cramer 1855
Plasma membrane J.Q Plowe in 1931
Cytoplasmic membrane, plasma membrane, or
plasma lemma
7.5 nm (75 Ao = Angstrom = 10-10 of meter) in
thickness.
It is an ultra-thin, elastic, living, dynamic and
selective- transport barrier, that encloses the
content of the entire cell.
DEFINITION OF THE CELL
MEMBRANE
In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, it
physically separates the cytoplasm from
the surrounding environment.

The cells of bacteria and plants have the


cell membrane between the cell wall and
the cytoplasm. Cell membrane forms the
cell surface for cells without cell wall.
DEFINITION OF THE CELL
MEMBRANE
All biological membranes including the
cell membrane and membranes of other
cytoplasmic organelles (e.g.,
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
complex, nucleus, mitochondria,
chloroplast, lysosomes,
peroxisomes etc.) are similar in general
structure but differ in specific functions.
FUNCTIONS OF THE
CELL MEMBRANE
1. Boundary and Permeability Barrier
They define the boundaries of the cell and its
organelles and act as permeability barriers.
2. Organization & Localization of Function

They serve as sites for specific biochemical


functions.
3. Transport Process
Membranes also possess transport proteins that
regulate the movement of substances into and
out of the cell and its organelles.
4. Signal Detection
Membranes contain protein molecules
that act as receptors to detect external
signals.
5. Cell-to-Cell Interactions
They provide mechanisms for cell-to-cell
contact, adhesion, and communication.
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
OF THE CELL MEMBRANE
Fluid Mosaic Model
DEFINITION OF THE FLUID
MOSAIC MODEL
This model, which is now thought to be
descriptive of all biological membranes,
envisions a membrane as two quite fluid
layers of lipids, with proteins localized
within and on the lipid layers and oriented
in a specific manner with respect to the
inner and outer membrane surfaces.
Membrane Lipids: The
Fluid Part of the Model
Membranes contain several major
classes of lipids.
Phospholipids, Glycolipids, and
Sterols.
Phospholipids
Amphipathic
Allows lipid bilayers to form
Most abundant lipids found in
membranes
Membranes has different kinds of
phospholipids: Phosphoglycerides
& Sphingolipids.
Sphingomyelin
Glycolipids
Formed by adding carbohydrate groups to
lipids. Some glycolipids are glycerol based,
& others are derivatives of sphingosine
and therefore called Glycosphingolipids.

Cerebrosides

Gangliosides
Two common glycolipids that do not
contain sphingosine are derivatives of
glycerol that are abundant in plant and
algal chloroplasts.

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
(MGDG) and
Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)
Sterols
Most eukaryotic cell membranes
contain significant amount of sterols.
Cholesterol animal
Phytosterol plant
Ergosterol fungi
Not found in bacterial cells except in
Mycoplasma species
Hopanoids sterol like molecules;
substitute
Membrane Proteins: The
Mosaic Part of the Model
Proteins are major components of all
cellular membranes. Membrane
proteins are classified as integral,
peripheral, or lipid anchored,
based on how they are associated
with the lipid bilayer.
Consists of a mosaic of proteins

This shows the


electron micrographs
of the E and P faces
from the plasma
membrane of a mouse
kidney tubule cell.

Individual proteins
imbedded in either
face show up as small
particles.
Integral, Peripheral, and
Lipid-Anchored Proteins
Membrane proteins are classified
according to their mode of
attachment to the membrane.
Integral Proteins
contain one or more hydrophobic
regions that are embedded within the
lipid bilayer.
Have one or more short segments of
predominantly hydrophobic amino
acids that anchor the protein to the
membrane
represent around 70%
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Functions of Cell Membrane Integral


Proteins
i)Transmembrane proteins span the entire
bilayer which act as:

a.Channels - for diffusion of small, watersoluble


substances.
b.Carriers- actively transport materials across the bilayer.

c. Pumps- actively transport ions across the bilayer.

d.Receptors- initiate intracellular reactions when


activated.
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Functions of Cell Membrane Integral


Proteins

ii)Present only on one side of the membrane

They act as enzymes that activate or inactive metabolic


processes.
Peripheral Membrane Proteins

These are hydrophilic and remain on


the membrane surface. They are
typically attached to the polar head
groups of phospholipids by ionic and
hydrogen bonding.
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Functions of Cell Membrane Peripheral


Proteins
The peripheral protein may be:

a. bind to the intracellular surface of the membrane and


contribute to the cytoskeleton.

b. bind to the extracellular surface of the membrane and


c contribute to the glycocalyx.
Glycocalyx
It is composed of glycolipids and
glycoproteins and covers the cell membrane.
Functions
1. It binds to the extracellular to stabilize
membrane structures.
2. It acts as an attachment matrix for other
cells (cell adhesion molecules).
Lipid-Anchored Membrane
Proteins
These are also hydrophilic in nature
but are covalently linked to the
membrane by any of several lipid
anchors that are embedded in the
lipid bilayer.
Lipid Rafts
These are small (10-200nm), heterogeneous,
highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-
enriched domains that compartmentalize
cellular processes.

The presence within lipid rafts of a variety of


membrane proteins involved in cell. It has led
to the consensus that these lipid domains
play an important role in the process of
signal transduction
Signal Transduction
A process by which a cell converts one
kind of signal or stimulus into
another.
Carbohydrate Chain
Plays a key role in cell-cell recognition
Ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from
another.
Basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune
system
Covalently bonded to lipids (glycolipids) or more
common to proteins (glycoproteins)
Glycoproteins
Many proteins in the plasma membrane are
glycoproteins, with carbohydrate side chains
that protrude from the membrane on the
external side, where they play important roles as
recognition markers on the cell surface.
THANK YOU! HAVE A NICE DAY