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A substation is a part of an
electrical generation,
transmission, and distribution

Substations transform voltage

from high to low, or the reverse,
or perform any of several other
important functions such as
switching operations etc.

Classification based on voltage levels:


Classification based on configuration:

Conventional AIS,
Non-conventional GIS
Composite substation
Air used as dielectric.
Normally used for outdoor substations.
Easy to expand provided no issue of space.
Simple handling and easy access.


Large dimensions due to statutory clearances and poor dielectric

strength of air.
Susceptible to pollutants.
Wastage of space.
Large planning and execution time.
Regular maintenance of substation required.

Non availability of sufficient space.

Difficult climatic and seismic conditions at site.
Urban site(high rise building).
High altitudes.
Limitations of AIS.
A gas insulated substation (GIS) is a high voltage substation in which
the major structures are contained in a sealed environment with
sulfur hexafluoride gas as the insulating medium.
The total space required for a GIS is 10% of that needed for a conventional substation.
Gas insulated substations offer other advantages in addition to the reduced space
It can be used in very harsh environments.
Because the substation is enclosed in a building, a GIS is less sensitive to pollution, as well as
salt, sand or large amounts of snow.
The various models of GIS produced here at alstom are :

F35 - upto 145kV

B105 - 170 to 300kV
T155 - upto 420kV
Non-toxic, very stable chemical.
Insulating properties : 3 times that of air.
Colorless & heavier than air.
Non inflammable.
Superior cooling characteristics.
Greater dielectric strength.
Good arc quenching property.
It is inert , non corrosive and non reactive.

F35 gas insulated Circuit breaker.

substation Combined circuit breaker/ disconnector.

Combined disconnector/ earthing switch.
Make proof earthing switch.
High voltage interfaces.
It is a three phase gas Customized instrument transformers.
insulated , high voltage
metal enclosed switch gear.

It is light weight and can be

used upto 145 kV. It is light weight thanks to the aluminium alloy
It is designed for both It is portable.
indoor and outdoor It can be used to set up a mobile power station.
installations. Simple transport and on site erection.

It is very compact and upto

3 bays can be combined in
one transport unit.
Can be used only upto 145kV.
Circuit breaker
INSULATED High performance operating mechanism
SUBSTATION Disconnector
Earthing switches
FEATURES: Instrument transformers
Standard terminations
It is a single phase, gas
Interconnecting components
insulated, high voltage,
metal enclosed switchgear.
It is used for operation
between 170 & 300kV .
Minimum floor space requirements.
Long service life expectancy.
Almost unlimited extension
and modification High operational reliability.
possibilities. Modular design.

The electromagnetic field

strength in the switchgear
room is harmless.
Can be used only upto 300kV.

INSULATED Aluminium enclosure.

Sf6 sealing.

SUBSTATION High quality conductor.

Safe insulator.
Circuit breaker
FEATURES: Spring mechanism.
Can be used up to 420kV, 5000A. High power earthing switch.
It makes use of gas insulated lines to Instrument transformers.
raise reliability. Surge arrestors.
Interconnecting components.
It is suitable for all kinds of High voltage terminations .
applications indoor, outdoor,
underground , mobile etc. Advantages:

Maximum safety & easy to expand.

Clear and simple layouts.
Low total cost of ownership.
Total adaptability.
It has best seismic resistance in its It is smart grid ready.

Can be used only upto 420kV

circuit breaker
Disconnecting switch or isolator
Earthing switch
Make proof earthing switch
Current transformer
Voltage transformer
Interconnecting components
Standard terminations
Aluminium enclosure
Surge arrestor
Sf6 sealing
GIL(gas insulated lines)
Failure & protective measures :

Circuit breaker Failure of circuit breaker is usually caused due to improper

operating mechanisms.

In order to avoid such failures timers are used .

Local breaker failure protection and remote breaker

A circuit breaker is an scheme are also used to avoid such circuit breaker failures.

automatically operated
Local breaker detects weather the circuit breaker trips
electrical switch designed to within 0.5 seconds else sends a pulse to trip all the circuit
protect an electrical circuit from breakers in the system.
damage caused by overload or
short circuit. Types :

According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they can be divided as:
A circuit breaker is usually 1) Spring operated circuit breaker
operated under load condition. 2) Pneumatic circuit breaker
3) Hydraulic circuit breaker

It is operated in GIS using a According to their arc quenching (rapid cooling) media the circuit breaker can be
spring mechanism. divided as:
1) Air circuit breaker
2) SF 6 circuit breaker
A disconnector, disconnect switch or isolator switch is used to ensure that an
electrical circuit is completely de - energized for service or maintenance.

It is always operated in open condition.

Usually disconnector are connected in both load side and

supply side.

Disconnectors are manually operated unlike that of circuit


Usually when the disconnector switch is opened the

earthing switch is closed to remove trapped\residual
charges and vice verse.
An earthing switch is a mechanical switching device used to remove the trapped charges
present in the system by grounding of conducting parts of during maintenance.

They can be installed anywhere according to users protection concept.

They are generally slow acting devices that are operated during open state of the GIS

Make proof Earthing switch

Make proof earthing switches are used for safe earthing of primary circuits including
closing on short circuit & to switch induced current.

The moving contacts are activated by a charged spring for opening and closing.

It has reduced maintenance.

current Principle:

transformer The alternating current in the primary produces an

alternating magnetic field in the core, which then
induces an alternating current in the secondary
winding circuit.

A current transformer (CT) is

An essential objective of current transformer design
used for measurement of is to ensure the primary and secondary circuits are
alternating electric currents. efficiently coupled, so the secondary current is
linearly proportional to the primary current .
When current in a circuit is too
high to apply directly to measuring
instruments, a current transformer
produces a reduced current
accurately proportional to the
current in the circuit, which can be
conveniently connected to
measuring and recording
transformer A transformer basically is very simple static (or stationary)
electro-magnetic passive electrical device that works on the
principle of Faradays law of induction by converting electrical
energy from one value to another.

A voltage transformer is used for

measurement of the voltage.

When voltage in a circuit is too

high to apply directly to measuring
instruments, a voltage transformer
produces a reduced voltage
accurately proportional to the
current in the circuit, which can be
conveniently connected to
measuring and recording
The various components of the GIS are assembled together by
means of standardized bolted flanges which are referred to as
interconnecting components.

Interconnecting components are comprised of aluminium enclosures

with insulated supported conductors.

Telescopic couplings are used to connect adjacent switchgear


Expansion bellows are provided to compensate for thermal

Standard terminations
expansion movements and tolerances.

Cables, overhead lines and transformers can all be connected to

their respective GIS interface components.

These include sf6 to air bushings, cable terminations and direct

transformer connections.

The enclosures used for making the substation bays are made of
aluminium alloys, cast or welded due to the following reasons:

1) Low electrical resistance and reduces resistive losses.

2) Non magnetic behavior so, no magnetic losses.

3) High resistance to corrosion .

4) Light weight.
arrestor Function of surge arrestor :

To protect a unit of equipment from

transients occurring on an attached
conductor, a surge arrester is connected to
the conductor just before it enters the
A surge arrester is a equipment.
device to protect electrical
equipment from over- The surge arrester is also connected to
voltage transients caused by
external (lightning) or
ground and functions by routing energy
internal (switching) events. from an over-voltage transient to ground if
one occurs, while isolating the conductor
from ground at normal operating voltages.
Surge arrestors are
employed to protect GIS
units, the connecting cables, This is usually achieved through use of a
transformers etc against all varistor, which has substantially different
types of over voltages .
resistances at different voltages.

It provides three concentric sealings.

It reduces the gas leakage rate of substation by less than 0.1% per year.

It also maintains constant pressure inside the GIS and prevents the entry of
moisture into the GIS.

Gas insulated lines(GIL)

GIL are connections of very long runs in shafts, underground galleries or at

ground level to connect the GIS to overhead lines with the minimum
number of interfaces.

Main features and characteristics

1) Open air (on supports, in trenches )

2) Tunnels (includes with slope or vertical shafts)
3) Buried (to reduce visual impact)
Low space requirement.
Increased safety and reliability.
Suitable for both indoor & outdoor applications.
Possesses modularity and adaptability.
Suitable for harsh environment conditions.
Long service life.
The complete substation is reduced to about 10% of the conventional air insulated substation.

Locations where Gas Insulated Substation is preferred:

Large cities and towns

Under ground stations
Highly polluted and saline environment Indoor GIS occupies very little space
Substations and power stations located Off shore
Mountains and valley regions

Cost is higher compared to Air Insulated Substation or conventional


Procurement of SF6 gas and supply of gas to the site is problematic.

Normally this type of substations are indoor type and requires separate

Maintaining Cleanliness is very important. Dust or moisture inside the

compartment causes the flash overs.

When fault occurs internally, the outage period will be very long. The
damage effect will also be severe.

Gas leakage & dielectric failure occurs.

PD detection
Partial discharge (PD) is an electrical discharge that does not completely bridge the gap between two
electrodes. PD happens all the time in power systems, but usually occurs in components that can withstand it (such as switchgear).
You may be aware of PD activity near you (that buzz you hear from medium or high voltage substation equipment or overhead
power lines). Modern cable and cable accessories cannot withstand partial discharge. In these cases, PD can slowly erode the
insulating material until failure.

Green Gas for Grid

In August 2014, Alstom became the first company in the world to offer the electrical industry an
alternative to SF6 for high voltage applications.

Alstom g3 green gas for grid is an environmentally friendly, non-toxic, non-flammable, SF 6-free gas mixture that can replace SF6
for high voltage air-insulated switchgear (AIS) or gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) applications. This gas mixture was jointly
developed with 3MTM, a leader in environmentally friendly solutions.

Alstom g3 has an extremely low global warming potential (GWP); in fact, its GWP is 98% lower than the GWP of SF 6. Alstom g3 is
safe to handle and has no impact on ozone depletion.

features of g3

Use at extremely low temperatures (25C and -30),

Compatibility with switchgear materials,
Stability versus temperature and time,
Easy handling for filling and topping-up,
Similar design compactness for equipment as of today.