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Nor Syahirah Mohamad1,2, Salmiah Kasolang1,2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450 Shah
Alam Selangor , Malaysia
Tribology Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia
An optimized model is often deployed to reduce trial and error in experiment Second-order linear
approach and obtain the multi-variant correlation. In this study, Response
ANOVA analysis
equation model
Surface Methodology (RSM) namely Box-Behnken design (BBD) approach
has been used to investigate the characteristic of lubricant. In BBD, this
approach based on multivariate whereby the effect of different parameters
is considered simultaneously. Hence, it is a non-linear system which is more
realistic of the actual phenomenon. In this study, the effect of three
independent variables namely speed, load and concentration of TiO2 on the
coefficient of friction (COF) was investigated. Each independent variable was
set at three-level: lower, middle and upper limit. By using this approach, the
number of experiment has reduced to 15 experiments from 100
experiments without optimization method. The result obtained from BBD has
shown that the most influential parameter was speed followed by
concentration of TiO2 and the least was normal load. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA) indicated that the proposed experiments from quadratic model Main Effect Plot
successfully interpreted the experimental data with a coefficient of
determination R2 = 0.9931 and adjusted R2 = 0.9806. From the contour plot
RSM analysis
of BBD, the optimization zone for interacting variables can be determined.
The zone provides a better friction reduction at two regions i.e. less than 11
kg and more than 17 kg with speed values range between 1200 rpm to 1900
to investigate the main effect of three independent variables on the
coefficient of friction (COF).
to analyze regions of optimization zone based on the interacting
variables using the ANOVA and RSM. S
Optimization of COF
.these inorganic nanoparticles are expected to
Nanoparticles exhibit lubricating properties as low as 2 wt%
additive concentration and to be applicable at high and
severe conditions. [1]
s .nanoparticles dispersed in lubricants are
effective in reducing level of friction and wear

the deposit of nanoparticles act a a third body,

debris reducing asperity interactions and thus
increasing load carrying capacity of the rubbing
pairs. [2] CONCLUSION
Surface useful method to determine optimum
operating conditions based on several (i) Of the three variables, ANOVA analysis reveals that speed is the
experiments in previous studies [3]. main parameter, which has the greatest influence compared to
load and additive concentration. The interaction of input
variables indicates that nanoparticles had influenced friction
simplify and reduce the number of values to some extent. Nanoparticles promote a protective film
experiments needed [4]. formation and hence reduce contact between interfacial surfaces
during extreme speed and load conditions.
(ii) The optimization zone for low friction was observed at two
analyze the interactions between input regions less than 11 kg and more than 17 kg with speed in the
and output variables as well as identify range of 1200 rpm to 1900 rpm.
the optimal response within the
experimental region [5].
METHODOLOGY [1]Y. Hwang, C. Lee, Y. Choi, S. Cheong, D. Kim, K. Lee, J. Lee, and S. H. Kim, Effect of the size
and morphology of particles dispersed in nano-oil on friction performance between rotating
discs, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 28532857, Nov. 2011.
Sample Pin and disc material [2] F. Chinas-Castillo and H. A. Spikes, Mechanism of Action of Colloidal Solid Dispersions, J.
Synthetic oil (SAE 10W40) Tribol., vol. 125, no. 3, p. 552, Jul. 2003.
preparation [3] R. V Lenth. 2010. Response-surface methods in R using rsm. J. Stat. Softw. 32(7):1 17.
[4] D. I. Ahmed, S. Kasolang, B. A. Khidhir, and N. R. Abdullah. 2013. Application of Response
Surface Methodology to Predict Oil-Film Friction in Journal Bearing. Applied. Mechanical.
Design of Box-behnken design
Material. 393: 931937.
[5] L. Wu, K. L. Yick, S. P. Ng, and J. Yip. 2012. Application of the Box-Behnken design to the
experiment optimization of process parameters in foam cup molding. Expert Syst. Appl. 39(9):80598065.

Tribological Pin-on-disc machine ACKNOWLEDGEME

Data Response Surface The author would like to thank the Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (MOHE) for the
financial support extended to this study through 600-RMI/ERGS 5/3 (70/2013) grant award.
analysis Methodology