You are on page 1of 9

RESEARCH PARADIGMS

DR. HAPSAH MD YUSOF

REFERENCES:
http://www.slideshare.net/umerkhalidhabib/research-parad
igms-world-views
Andersons Lecture notes
Research Paradigms
Paradigm
the set of common beliefs and
agreements shared between
scientists about how problems should
be understood and addressed
(Kuhn, 1962)
Research
Paradigms/worldviews
Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism
Determination Understanding Consequences of
Reductionism Multiple participant actions
Empirical meanings Problem centered
observation and Social and historical Pluralistic
measurement construction Real-world practice
Theory verification Theory generation oriented.
Research Paradigms and
Philosophical Assumptions
Philosophical Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism
Assumption
Ontology: What is Singular reality Multiple realities Singular and
the nature of existing apart shaped by multiple realities
reality? OR what from researchers researchers prior e.g., researchers
is knowledge perception and understanding test hypothesis
cultural biases. (constructionism). and provide
(Objectivism) e.g., E.g., researchers multiple
researchers reject provide quotes to perspectives
or fail to reject illustrate different
hypothesis perspectives.
Epistemology: Distance and Closeness (e.g., Practically (e.g.,
What is the impartiality researchers visit researchers
relationship (Researchers participants at co0llect data by
between the objectively collect their sites to what work to
researcher and data on collect data). It is address research
that being instruments). cased on the question).
researched? What Acceptable perceptions of the Objective +
is regarded as knowledge is individuals about Subjective
acceptable gained through the world.
Research Paradigms and
Philosophical Assumptions
Philosophical Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism
Assumption
Axiology: What is Unbiased (e.g., Biased (e.g., Multiple stances.
the role of values? researchers use researchers (e.g., researchers
checks to actively talk include both
eliminate bias) about their biases biased and
and unbiased
interpretations) perspectives
Rhetoric: What is Formal style (e.g., Informal style. Formal or informal
the language of researchers use (e.g. researchers (e.g. researchers
research? agrees on write in literary, may employ both
definition informal style) formal and
variables) informal styles of
writing
Methodology Deductive (e.g., Inductive (e.g., Combining (e.g.,
researchers that researchers start researchers
an a priori with participants collect both
theory) views and build quantitative and
up patterns, qualitative data
theories, and mix them)
Research Paradigms and
Philosophical Assumptions
Philosophical Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism
Assumption
Strategies of Surveys; Grounded theory, Sequential,
inquiry experiments and ethnography, concurrent and
fieldwork case study and transformative
narratives
Methods Questionnaire Open ended Both open and
(close ended questions, close ended
questions, emerging questions: both
predetermined approaches, and emerging and
approaches, text and image predetermined
numerical data, analysis approaches; both
statistical analysis (Qualitative) quantitative and
(Quantitative) qualitative data
analysis
Strategies associated with
quantitatibe approach
Basic Survey Designs
Cross-sectional surveys:
Data collected at one point in time selected to represent
a larger population

Longitudinal Surveys:
Trend:
Surveys of sample population at different time points
Cohort:
Study of sample population each time data are
collected but samples studied maybe different
Panel:
Data collection at various time points with the same
sample of respondents