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Simulation Of Direct Torque Control Of

Three Phase Induction Motor
Presented By
Sandeep Guha Niyogi
Roll No. 852010
M.Tech (Power Electronics & Drives)
Under the guidance
of
Mr. A.A.Nimje
Assistant Professor
School Of Electrical Engineering
KIIT University
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OUTLINE
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INTRODUCTION
‡ Torque control of induction motor based on DTC strategy has
been developed and the performance of this control method
has been demonstrated using Matlab/Simulink.
‡ DTC (as the name indicates) is the direct control of torque &
stator flux of a drive by inverter voltage vector selection
through a look up table.
‡ An advanced technique introduced for voltage fed inverter
drives & claimed to have comparable performance with
Vector Controlled Drives.
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Control Schemes of Induction Motor
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Direct Torque Control
Developed in the middle of 80͛s by I.Takahashi and T.Noguchi
as Direct Torque Control (DTC) and by M.Depenbrock as
Direct Self Control (DSC)
Stator flux is a time integral of stator emf and its magnitude
strongly depends on the stator voltage
Developed torque is directly proportional to the sine of angle
between stator and rotor flux vectors
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BASIC DTC SCHEME
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Dynamic Machine model in stationary
reference frame
Q-axis equivalent Circuit D-axis equivalent Circuit
dt
d
i r V
dt
d
i r V
s
ds
s
ds s
s
ds
s
qs s
qs s
s
qs
P
P
!
!
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Voltage Source Inverter
‡ a, b and c are the mid
points of the three legs of
the inverter.
‡ T1 to T6 are the switches
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Switching States of Phase Leg a of VSI
T1 T4 Sa Va
On Off 1
Off On 0 0
dc
V
Sa consisting of switching
devices T1 and T4
The total number of switching states possible with Sa, Sb and Sc are EIGHT
and are elaborated with the relation
b a ab
V V V !
c b bc
V V V !
a c ca
V V V !
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Inverter switching states
STATE STATE No.
SWITCH STATES
T1, T2, T6 are on
1 1 0 0
T2, T3, T1 are on 2 1 1 0
T3, T4, T2 are on 3 0 1 0
T4, T5, T3 are on 4 0 1 1
T5, T6, T4 are on 5 0 0 1
T6, T1, T5 are on 6 1 0 1
T1, T3, T5 are on 7 1 1 1
T4, T6, T2 are on 8 0 0 0
a
S
b
S
c
S
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Switching States for the Voltage Source Inverter
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Switching States for the Voltage Source Inverter
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DTC development
‡ The DTC scheme selects between the inverter's six non-zero voltage
vectors and two zero vectors in order to keep the stator flux and torque
within a hysteresis band around the flux and torque reference values.
‡ Neglecting the stator resistance the stator voltage imposes directly
the stator flux in accordance with the following equation:
This equation shows that the applied voltage determines the change in
the stator flux vector.
t V
s s
( ! ( . P
s
s
s s s
dt
d
i R V [P
P
!
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DTC development
Stator flux vector locus and different possible
switching voltage vectors.
5
6
4
3
2
1
V1
V3 V2
V4
V5
V6
r
P
s
P
s
P
V1(100)
V2(110)
V3(010)
V4(011)
V5(001)
V6(101)
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DTC CONTROLLER
‡ Classical DTC look-up table
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
1
+1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1
0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7 V0
-1 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
-1
+1 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2
0 V0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7
-1 V5 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4
e
dT
P d
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STATOR FLUX & TORQUE CONTROLLER
´ )
¦
! dt i V
qs s qs qs
P
´ )dt i V
ds s ds ds
¦
! P
´ ) ´ )
¦
¦
'
+

'

!
’ !

ds
qs
fs
fs ds qs s
P
P
U
U P P P
1
2 2
tan
´ )
qs ds ds qs e
i i
P
T ! P P
2 2
3
flux stator axis - q
qs
! P
flux stator axis - d !
ds
P
flux stator axis - d V
flux stator axis - q
ds
!
!
qs
V
flux stator Total !
s
P
ds qs
& between angle P P U !
fs
torque netic electromag !
e
T
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SIMULINK MODEL OF DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF
INDUCTION MOTOR
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FLUX CONTROLLER
´ )
¦
! dt i R V
qs s qs qs
P
´ ) ´ )
¦
¦
'
+

'

!
’ !

ds
qs
fs
fs ds qs s
P
P
U
U P P P
1
2 2
tan
´ )dt i V
ds s ds ds
¦
! P
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TORQUE CONTROLLER
´ )
qs ds ds qs e
i i
P
T ! P P
2 2
3
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Section.m
Section.m
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21
swtable.m
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Simulation Results
Flux Magnitude Waveform (Weber)
The reference flux was set at 1.5 Wb and the reference torque is at 40 N-m
and the speed attained by the rotor is 960 rpm which is below the set speed
command of 1000 rpm.
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Actual Torque (N-m)
Speed of the motor (rpm)
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Comparison of actual torque obtained and the
reference torque
Reference Torque (N-m)
Actual Torque (N-m)
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Torque ripple and its effect on Speed
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Comparison between the reference flux and
actual stator flux linkage
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Locus of Stator Flux D & Q-Axis Stator Flux
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D & Q-Axis STATOR CURRENT
Three Phase Stator Current
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Inverter output line Current (Amp)
Inverter Output line Voltage (Volts)
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Sectors
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Pulses Generated
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CONCLUSION
‡ The work carried out here is aimed and focused to develop a direct torque
control Simulink model. The DTC architecture allows the independent and
decoupled control of torque and stator flux.
‡ DTC has some disadvantages, being one of the most important the torque
ripple.
‡ Only stator resistance is employed in the computation of stator flux linkages,
thereby removing the dependence of mutual and rotor inductances of the
machine on its calculation.
‡ This scheme is also sensitive to stator resistance instrumented in the
controller. The stator resistance change has a wide variation from the set value
due to the variation in temperature and to a smaller degree to stator
frequency variation, thus deteriorating the drive performance by introducing
error in the stator flux linkage magnitude and position hence in the
electromagnetic torque, particularly at low speeds.
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REFERENCES
‡ Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski, ͚Control Of Induction Motors͛, Academic Press
Publishers.
‡ B.K.Bose, ͚Modern Power Electronics & AC Drives͛, Prentice Hal PTR.
‡ R.Krishnan, ͚Electric Motor Drives- modelling, analysis and control͛,
Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd.
‡ Direct Torque Control- the world's most advanced AC drive technology
Technical Guide No. 1,ABB Finland
‡ Giuseppe S. Buja, Fellow, IEEE, and Marian P. Kazmierkowski, Fellow, IEEE,
͚Direct Torque Control of PWM Inverter-Fed AC MotorsͶA Survey͛, IEEE
transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 51, no. 4, August 2004.
‡ H.F. Abdul Wahab and H. Sanusi, ͚Simulink Model of Direct Torque Control
of Induction Machine͛, American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol.5, and
No.8: Pgs. 1083-1090, 2008.
‡ Hoang Le-Huy, ͚Comparison of Field-Oriented Control and Direct Torque
Control for Induction Motor Drives͛, 1999 IEEE
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REFERENCES
‡ Jagdish G. Chaudhari, Sandeep K. Mude and Prakash G. Gabhane, ͚High
Performance Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Using Space Vector
Modulation͛, IEEE CCECE/CCGEI, Ottawa, May 2006.
‡ M. Lakshmi Swarupa, G. Tulasi Ram Das and P.V. Raj Gopal, ͚Simulation and
Analysis of SVPWM Based 2-Level and 3-Level Inverters for Direct Torque
of Induction Motor͛, International Journal of Electronic Engineering
Research, Volume 1 Number 3, pp. 169ʹ184, 2009.
‡ Nuno M. Silva, António P. Martins, and Adriano S. Carvalho, ͚Torque and
Speed Modes Simulation of A DTC-Controlled Induction Motor͛,
Proceedings of the 10
th
Mediterranean Conference on Control and
Automation - MED2002, Lisbon, Portugal, July 9-12, 2002.
‡ Gopal K. Dubey, ͚Fundamentals of Electrical Drives͛ Second Edition, 2007.
‡ Simulink-Dynamic System Simulation for MATLAB, the Mathworks Inc.
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THANK YOU
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