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Chapter 1

Environmental Issues,
Their Causes, and Sustainability
Key Concepts

What are the Major Environmental


Problems
What are Their Causes
How Important or Serious are They
Ways to Live More Sustainably
Environment
Everything that affects a living organism during its
lifetime
Ecology
Biological science that studies relationship
between living organisms and their interaction with
the environment
Environmental Science
Interdisciplinary science that uses concepts and
information from natural sciences and social
sciences to help us understand
1) How the earth works
2) How we are affecting the environment
3) How we deal with environmental problems
Living More Sustainably

Environmentally Sustainable Society


- satisfies the basic needs of its
people into the indefinite future
Food
Clean Water
Clean Air
Shelter
Population Growth
How fast are we growing?

Exponential
Growth

Fig. 1-2 p. 4
World Population

J
curve
Population Growth

Exponential
Growth

Doubling Time
and the
Rule of 70
Fig. 1-2 p. 4
Rule of 70

70 Doubling
= Time
Percent
(in years)
growth rate
(%)
Lets See If the Rule of 70 Works!
10% fixed growth rate.what is doubling time?
70/10 = 7 year doubling time

100 people to start

(.10)(100) =+10 10% growth


110 total # of people at end of year 1
(.10)(110) =+11
121 end of year 2
(.10)(121) =+12
133 end of year 3
(.10)(133) =+13
146 end of year 4
(.10)(146) = +14
160 end of year 5
(.10)(160) = +16
176 end of year 6
(.10)(176) = +17
193 end of year 7almost doubled!
The Power of Doubling
(lab)
Economic Growth

refers to an increase in the capacity to


provide people with goods and services.

Economic growth is measured by a countys


Gross National Product (GNP or GNI)

Market value ($) of all goods and services


produced within and outside a country during
a year plus net income earned abroad by a
countries citizens
Other Economic Indicators

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)


market value ($) of all goods and services
produced within a country during a year

Gross World Product (GWP)


market value ($) of all goods and services
produced in the world during a year
Economic Growth

Per Capita GNP


GNP divided by total population at
mid-year

your piece of the economic pie


Economic Development
The improvement of living standards by
economic growth.

Measured by (1) degree of industrialization and


(2) per capita GNI

Developed Countries
US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, all of Europe
Developing Counties
Most of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
<$2700
$2700-$10,750

>$10,75
0

per capita GNI


Economic Development

Positive Aspects
Global life expectancy has doubled
from 33 to 67 years
Infant mortality has dropped
Food production has outpaced
population growth
Access to safe drinking water has
increased.
Economic Development
Negative Aspects
Average life expectancy in developing
countries is 11 years less than in
developed countries
Infant mortality is 8x higher
Harmful environmental effects of
industrialized food production may limit
future food production
Air and water pollution are high in most
developing countries
Natural resources are being used
unsustainably
Globalization we are living in
an increasingly integrated world
Economic indicators
Global economy grew
International trade grew
Corporation operating in multiple countries grew

Information and Communication


1 in every 11 people in the world have Internet
access

Environmental Effects
Number of diseases transmitted across international
borders has increased
Pollution transported globally
Resources

Perpetual
Renewed continuously

Renewable
Replenished rapidly

Non-renewable
Exist in a fixed quantity
Renewable Resources

Sustainable Yield the highest rate at


which a renewable resource can be used
indefinitely

Environmental Degradation process of


exceeding a resources natural
replacement rate
Renewable Resources

Tragedy of the Commons


Garrett Hardin
degradation of renewable resources
Non-Renewable Resources
Energy Resources

Metallic Resources

Non-Metallic
Resources

Reuse

Recycle Economic Depletion


Ecological Footprints -

the amount of land needed to


produce the resources
needed by an average person
in a country
Ecological Footprints
Whats YOUR
ecological footprint?
Pollution

What is Pollution? Where do pollutants


Any addition to come from?
Point Sources single
air, water, soil, identifiable sources
or food that Smokestack
threatens the Drainpipe
health, survival, Exhaust pipe
or activities of Nonpoint sources
dispersed sources
humans or other Runoff from fields
living organisms Pesticides sprayed in
the air
Pollution

What are the effects of pollutants?


a) Disruption of life-support systems for
humans and other species.
b) Damage to wildlife, human health,
and property.
c) Nuisances such as noise, and
unpleasant smells, tastes, and
sights.
Dealing With Pollution

Prevention Cleanup
(Input Control) (Output
Refuse Control)
Temporary
Replace
Shifts problem
Reduce
somewhere
Reuse else
Recycle Costly
Environmental and Resource
Problems
Major Problems (See Fig. 1-9 p. 12)
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Biodiversity Depletion
Food Supply
Waste Production
Biodiversity Depletion
Habitat destruction
Air Pollution Habitat degradation
Global climate change Extinction
Stratospheric ozone
depletion
Urban air pollution
Acid deposition Food Supply Problems
Outdoor pollutants Overgrazing
Indoor pollutants Farmland loss
Noise and degradation
Major Wetlands loss
Environmental and degradation
Problems Overfishing
Coastal pollution
Water Pollution
Soil erosion
Sediment Soil salinization
Nutrient overload Soil waterlogging
Toxic chemicals Water shortages
Infectious agents Groundwater depletion
Oxygen depletion Loss of biodiversity
Pesticides Poor nutrition
Oil spills Waste Production
Excess heat Solid waste
Hazardous waste
Environmental and Resource
Problems

Root
Causes
Environmental Impact

Fig. 1-11 p. 13
Environmental Impact (I)

PxAxT=I
P = Population
A = Affluence
T = Technology
I = Impact (Environmental)
Environmental Interactions

Fig. 1-12 p. 14
Environmental Worldviews
Planetary Management Environmental Wisdom
We are in charge of nature. Nature does not exist just
for us and we only think we
are in charge.
There is always more.
There is not always more.
All economic growth is
good. Some forms of technology
are environmentally
beneficial, some are
harmful.
Our success depends on Our success depends on
how well we can learning how the earth
understand, control, and sustains itself and
manage the earths life integrating these lessons
support systems. into how we think and act.
Environmentally-Sustainable
Economic Development

Social Economic Social Economic


Sustainable
Solutions

Environmental Environmental

Fig. 1-13 p. 17
Traditional Decision making in a
decision making sustainable society