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# A force is a push or pull that causes an object to

shape and size.

## In physics a force is anything that makes an object

accelerate
Forces come in pairs
Forces have a magnitude and a direction

Magnitude: 5N
5N, north (up)
Direction: north (up)
Forces occur in pairs and they can be either
balanced or unbalanced
Balanced forces do not cause change in
motion
They are equal in size and opposite in
direction
An unbalanced force always causes a
change in motion

## When unbalanced forces act in opposite

directions you can find the net force
Net force
Magnitude
The difference between the two forces

Direction
Direction of the largest force
3 N, right , 6 N, left = 3N, left
4 N, left , 10 N, right = 6N, right
5 N, right + 10 N, right = 15N, right
What did Hooke discover ?

## the more force that was put on materials the

more they extended
With some materials they also extended in a
regular way eg if the force was doubled so did
the extension
this was true as long as their elastic limit was
not exceeded
What does this mean?
What the graph shows
Extension (m) Breakage
Extension proportional to Elastic
Force. Straight line graph. Limit
Object will return to
original shape. (Elastic)
Ext not proportional to
Force. Object will not
return to original shape.
(Not Elastic).
Force (Newtons)
What is the elastic limit?
The material no longer shows elastic
behaviour (ie does not return to original size
when stretching force is removed)
The material is permanently deformed ie is
larger or longer than originally
The material is weaker as the above effects
are caused by fracture of some atomic bonds

F
x
Since Force is proportional
to extension Hookes Law
could be put as

## Where F is the applied force in Newtons

x is the extension in metres

## Or if k is the proportionality constant

F=kx
What does k mean in F=kx?

## k is called the spring constant and is a measure of

the stiffness of the spring or material
It has units of Nm-1 (newtons per metre)
The higher the k the stiffer the spring
Materials with a high k need a large force to for a
given extension
adding springs in series or parallel changes k
When an object undergoes circular motion it
must experience a
centripetal force
This produces an acceleration

## BWH 10/04 AQA 13.3.1-6 18

Angular Centripetal
Speed Force

## BWH 10/04 AQA 13.3.1-6 19

BWH 10/04 AQA 13.3.1-6 20
BWH 10/04 AQA 13.3.1-6 21
BWH 10/04 AQA 13.3.1-6 22
Objects in motion tend to remain in motion, at the same rate,
And in the same direction, unless acted on by an outside force

## Newtons First Law tells us that only a force

can cause a body to move out of a straight line
path. In circular motion the direction of the
body is continually changing at every instant.
Therefore a force must be acting. That force is
called centripetal (central) force since it acts
toward the circle of the circular path.

## ALL CIRCULAR MOTION REQUIRES A

CENTRIPETAL FORCE, OTHERWISE THE
BODY CONTINUES IN A STRAIGHT LINE PATH.
All circular motion requires a centripetal
force. Newtons Second Law of Motion tells us
that force equal mass times acceleration.
Therefore, centripetal force must produce an
acceleration (centripetal acceleration). Since
the force acts towards the center of the
circular path, the acceleration must also be
towards the center !

## ALL CIRCULAR MOTION IS ACCELERATED

MOTION. THE ACCELERATION IS ALWAYS
TOWARDS THE CENTER OF THE CIRCULAR PATH.
The velocity vector
is always
tangential to the
circular path
The acceleration
vector is always
towards the center
of the circular path
Vectors and Scalars

## A vector has magnitude as

well as direction.
Some vector quantities:
displacement, velocity, force,
momentum
A scalar has only a magnitude.
Some scalar quantities: mass,
time, temperature
Scalars and Vectors
No direction

vectors
scalars

## temperature mass velocity

force
acceleration
speed
Scalar: Length ,area ,volume , speed, mass , density, pressure ,
temperature, energy entropy , work ,power etc.

## Vector : Displacement , acceleration , velocity , momentum ,

weight etc.
Addition of Vectors

## For vectors in one

dimension, simple
addition and subtraction
are all that is needed.
You do need to be careful
about the signs, as the
figure indicates.
Addition of Vectors
If the motion is in two dimensions, the situation is
somewhat more complicated.
Here, the actual travel paths are at right angles to
one another; we can find the displacement by
using the Pythagorean Theorem.
Addition of Vectors
Adding the vectors in the opposite order gives the
same result:
Determine the magnitude of the resultant vector.
A]
R2 = (5)2 + (10)2
R2 = 125
R = SQRT (125)
R = 11.2 km

B]

R2 = (30)2 + (40)2
R2 = 2500
R = SQRT (2500)
R = 50 km
Addition of Vectors
The parallelogram method.
Adding Vectors by Components

## Any vector can be expressed as the sum

of two other vectors, which are called its
components. Usually the other vectors are
chosen so that they are perpendicular to
each other.
Adding Vectors by Components

Remember:
soh
cah
toa

## If the components are

perpendicular, they can be
found using trigonometric
functions.
1. Arya recently submitted her vector addition homework assignment.
As seen below, Arya added two vectors and drew the resultant. However, Arya
failed to label the resultant on the diagram. For each case, what is the resultant
(A, B, or C)? Explain.
Diagram A: A is the resultant of B + C. Arya added B + C
using the head-to-tail method and then drew the resultant
from the tail of the first vector (B) to the head of the last
vector (C).

## Diagram B: A is the resultant of C + B. Arya added B + C

using the head-to-tail method and then drew the resultant
from the tail of the first vector (C) to the head of the last
vector (B).
2. On two different occasions during a high school soccer game, the ball was kicked
simultaneously by players on opposing teams. In which case (Case 1 or Case 2) does
the ball undergo the greatest acceleration? Explain your answer.

Even though the individual forces are greater in Case 1, the net
force is greatest in Case 2. Acceleration depends on the net force; it
is not dependent on the size of the individual forces.
Calculate the resultant vector.
.
38.2

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