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UNIT 2: REVIEW

TIER 6

mbine the knowledge of gases and solutions to perform stoichiometric calculatio


Gas Stoichiometry
Sample Problem
Propane, C3H8, is a gas that is sometimes used as a fuel
for cooking and heating. The complete combustion of
propane occurs according to the following balanced
equation.
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
(a) What will be the volume, in liters, of oxygen
required for the complete combustion of 0.350 L of
propane?
(b) What will be the volume of carbon dioxide produced
in the reaction? Assume that all volume measurements
are made at the same temperature and pressure.
Gas Stoichiometry: VOLUME TO
VOLUME
Sample Problem Solution
Given: balanced chemical equation;
V of propane = 0.350 L
Unknown: V of O2
Solution: Because all volumes are to be
compared at
the same conditions, volume ratios can be
used like mole ratios.
.350L C3H8 X 3L CO2 = 1.05 L
CO2
1 L C3H8
Gas Stoichiometry:VOLUME TO MASS

Sample Problem

Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, also know as


limestone, can be heated to produce calcium
oxide (lime) and industrial chemical with a
wide variety of uses.
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2(g)

How many grams of calcium carbonate must


be decomposed to produce 5.00L of carbon
dioxide gas at STP?
Sample Problem Solution
Given: - Balanced chemical equation;
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2(g)
-V of carbon dioxide= 5.00 L
-STP conditions
Unknown: g of CaCO3

At STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L

5.00L x 1 mole CO2 = .223 moles CO2


22.4 L

.223 moles CO2 x 1 mole CaCO3 =.223 moles


CaCO3
1mole CO2
PROBLEM: How many liters of H2 gas at STP can be
produced by the reaction of 4.6 g Na and excess
water according to the following equation?
2Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) H2(g) + 2 NaOH (aq)
Sample Problem: MASS TO
VOLUME

Tungsten is produced by the


reaction of tungsten oxide with
hydrogen.

WO3 (s) + 3H2 (g) W(s) +3


H2O(l)

How many liter of hydrogen gas


at 35oC and .980 atm are needed
to react completely with 875 g of
Sample Problem Solution
Sample Problem Solution
Given: balanced chemical equation
WO3 (s) + 3H2 (g) W(s) + 3 H2O(l)
-P is .980 atm
-T is 35oC
-mass of WO3
Unknown: V of hydrogen gas

875 g WO3 x 3 mol H2 = 11.3 mole H2


231.84 g WO3

V = nRT = (11.3 mol)(.0821) (308K) = 292L


H2
P .980
PROBLEM: How many liters of gaseous carbon
monoxide at 27oC ad .247 atm can be produced from
the burning of 65.5g of carbon according to the
following equation?
2C(s) + O2(g) 2CO(g)
SOLUTION
STOICHIOMETRY
SAMPLE PROBLEM:

In a recent lab, a 2M hydrochloric acid was


reacted with 2.00 g of Magnesium.
Mg(s) + 2HCl MgCl2 (ag) + H2 (g)

(a)How many cm3 of hydrochloric acid would be


needed to react all the magnesium with out any
acid excess.
(b) How many dm3 of hydrogen gas could be
produced at STP
SAMPLE PROBLEM SOLUTION

GIVEN: Balanced equation: Mg(s) + 2HCl MgCl2 (ag) + H2 (g)


-mass of Mg =2.00g
-Molarity of HCl = 2mol dm-3
-STP conditions
UNKNOWN: (a) V of HCl solution
(b) V of H2 gas

(a) 2.00g Mg x 1mole Mg x 2 mole HCl x 1 dm3 HCl = .08 dm3


= 80 cm3
24.31g Mg 1 mole Mg 2 mol HCl

(b)2.00g Mg x 1 mole Mg x 1 mole H2 x 22.4 dm3 = 1.84


dm3
24.31 g Mg 1 mole Mg 1mole
PROBLEM: In a recent lab, a 3M nitric acid was
reacted with 3.50 g of zinc.
Zn(s) + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3 )2(ag) + H2 (g)

(a)How many cm3 of nitric acid would be needed to


react all the zinc with out any acid excess.
(b) How many dm3 of hydrogen gas could be
produced at STP